Cases reported "Mediastinal Diseases"

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1/48. Acute traumatic dissection and blunt rupture of the thoracic descending aorta: A case report.

    Rupture of the thoracic aorta following blunt trauma is increasing in incidence and remains a highly lethal injury. Blunt traumatic rupture and acute dissection of the thoracic aorta is very rare. A 50-year-old man involved in a motor vehicle accident on March 3, 1998 was admitted to our hospital one and a half hours following the accident. On admission, he was alert and his hemodynamics were stable. Chest roentgenogram demonstrated a widened mediastinum and multiple left-sided rib fractures. Enhanced chest CT revealed a periaortic hematoma just distal to the isthmus, dissection of the descending thoracic aorta and mediastinal hematoma. With the diagnosis of thoracic aortic rupture and acute DeBakey type IIIB dissection, an emergency operation was performed. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram showed a mobile intimal flap and diminished caliber of the proximal descending aorta. Disruption and dissection of the descending thoracic aorta were found. Prosthetic graft interposition was accomplished with the aid of left atrium-left femoral artery bypass using a centrifugal pump and heparin-coated circuits and a blood collection device for blood conservation. The weak dissected aortic wall was glued and reapproximated with Gelatine-Resorcine-Formol glue. The postoperative course was uneventful.
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2/48. Mediastinal amyloidosis.

    Systemic amyloidosis is an unusual cause of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Thoracic surgeons are often called upon to establish a diagnosis in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, so familiarity with mediastinal amyloidosis is valuable. We report our experience with 2 patients, and discuss the diagnostic role of mediastinoscopy and other less invasive biopsy techniques. General anesthesia may pose significant risks in this disease; nonoperative biopsy techniques should be considered if the diagnosis of amyloidosis is suspected.
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3/48. A viable residual spinal hydatid cyst cured with albendazole. Case report.

    Spinal hydatid disease is a rare entity that frequently yields to severe, acute-onset neurological deficits. Although the gold standard treatment is total surgical removal of the cysts without inducing any spillage, it may not be possible to perform this in patients with multiple and fragile cysts. In such cases, the neural structures should be adequately decompressed and albendazole should be administered promptly. The authors describe the case of a 13-year-old girl who was admitted with a history of back pain and acute-onset lower-extremity weakness. magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated severe spinal cord compression caused by multiple cysts involving T-4 and the mediastinum. The patient underwent surgery, and the cysts were removed, except for one cyst that was hardly exposed. Following histopathological confirmation of spinal hydatid disease, she was treated with albendazole for 1 year. One year postoperatively, the residual cyst had gradually shrunk and had almost disappeared. Although a single case is not sufficiently promising, we believe that administration of albendazole is efficient to prevent recurrences in cases in which it is not possible to obtain total removal of the cysts without inducing spillage.
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4/48. CT diagnosis of internal mammary artery injury caused by blunt trauma.

    AIM: To describe the computed tomography (CT) findings associated with active bleeding from the internal mammary artery (IMA) in blunt trauma victims and to assess complications related to IMA haemorrhage. MATERIAL AND methods: All cases of active IMA haemorrhage identified in blunt trauma patients on admission CT were identified from a trauma radiology data base covering 1990-1999. Computed tomography examinations, operative and medical records were reviewed to ascertain CT findings, complications, and patient outcome. The determination of active bleeding required CT evidence of a central contrast blush of CT density within 10 HU of an adjacent artery surrounded by haematoma. RESULTS: Four patients with CT evidence of active IMA haemorrhage were identified. All cases had surgical confirmation of an IMA source of haemorrhage. There were three patients with unilateral and one patient with bilateral IMA disruption. Three patients exhibited clinical signs of cardiac tamponade related to compression of one or more cardiac chambers by the anterior mediastinal haematoma. Sudden clinical deterioration compatible with tamponade developed in all three patients. CONCLUSION: Early CT recognition of active bleeding within the chest can direct rapid surgical or angiographic intervention. On-going blood loss and, in particular, the threat of cardiac tamponade must be considered with IMA injury.
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5/48. Esophageal laceration and charcoal mediastinum complicating gastric lavage.

    A 19-year-old woman underwent multiple attempts at orogastric lavage before success 5 h after ingesting approximately 24 grams of ibuprofen in a suicide attempt. Activated charcoal was administered via the lavage tube. She vomited charcoal shortly after administration and began experiencing difficulty breathing and an increase in the pitch of her voice. A chest X-ray study showed a widened mediastinum, pneumopericardium, and subcutaneous emphysema consistent with esophageal perforation that was confirmed by computed tomography scan. Surgical exploration revealed a tear in the proximal posterior esophagus with charcoal in the posterior mediastinum. She remained intubated for 7 days and was discharged 14 days after admission. This is a report of esophageal perforation with activated charcoal contamination of the mediastinum after gastric lavage. The risks and benefits of this procedure should be carefully considered in each patient prior to its use. Awake patients should be cooperative with the procedure to minimize any risk of trauma to the oropharynx or esophagus.
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6/48. pulmonary artery occlusion from tuberculous lymphadenopathy in a child.

    Occlusion of the pulmonary artery is a rare complication of mediastinal tuberculosis. We report on a 10-year-old girl who presented with a tuberculous pericardial effusion in whom subsequent imaging showed a totally occluded right pulmonary artery from tuberculous lymphadenopathy. diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction from a lymph node biopsy. Failure of medical therapy necessitated surgical reconstruction of her right pulmonary artery. Postoperatively she has normal perfusion of the right lung and normal lung function.
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7/48. Invasive inflammatory pseudo-tumor involving the lung and the mediastinum.

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a rare clinical entity. We report here the case of a 14-year-old boy who underwent lung resection en bloc with the lower esophagus, the mediastinal pleura and the diaphragm for an inflammatory pseudotumor of the left lower lobe. Postoperative radiotherapy was administered. The patient is well at 9-year follow-up. Inflammatory pseudotumor may present a particularly aggressive behavior. Multimodality approach, including extensive surgical resection, may be necessary in dealing with this disease.
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8/48. Intraoperative radioguided thoracoscopic removal of ectopic parathyroid adenoma.

    Twenty-five percent of primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by ectopic mediastinal parathyroid glands, with 2% of these not accessible to standard cervical surgical approaches. Advancement in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical techniques has decreased the need for sternotomy to successfully remove these ectopic glands. The thoracoscopic approach, however, is limited by the surgeon's inability to always accurately visualize ectopic glands. Intraoperative radionuclide-guided dissection, using a thoracoscopic approach, provides a novel adjunct to the removal of occult ectopic parathyroid glands. We report a case of an occult ectopic parathyroid adenoma removed thoracoscopically using an intraoperative handheld gamma probe.
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9/48. An ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma accurately located by a single-day imaging protocol of Tc-99m pertechnetate-MIBI subtraction scintigraphy and MIBI-SPECT-computed tomographic image fusion.

    PURPOSE: Because ectopic parathyroid adenoma (PA) is a frequent cause of failed initial surgery, an imaging approach with accurate preoperative localization is recommended by some authors in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). methods: The authors describe a 52-year-old woman in whom primary HPT was diagnosed incidentally during a screening program for osteoporosis. The peculiarity of this case is that the patient was examined before operation in a single-day multimodal imaging protocol based on the combination of high-resolution cervical ultrasound, planar Tc-99m pertechnetate-MIBI scans, and an MIBI-SPECT-computed tomographic (CT) image fusion study. An ectopic PA was accurately located in the upper middle mediastinum, close to the lower margin of the sternal notch. RESULTS: Guided by the MIBI-SPECT-CT fusion images, the surgeon performed a limited median sternotomy and easily removed the PA that was revealed before operation. To confirm the completeness of resection, a bilateral neck exploration was performed through the same incision, with identification of three normally sized parathyroid glands. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience suggests the utility of multimodality imaging procedures for the accurate preoperative localization of PAs, particularly when they are present in ectopic mediastinal locations. Such procedures, including the MIBI-SPECT-CT image fusion study, can be performed in a single day.
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10/48. Accessory thyroid in the anterior mediastinum: case report.

    A case of accessory thyroid in the anterior mediastinum, physically separated from the thyroid gland, is reported. The mediastinal thyroid was incidentally discovered during the preoperative evaluation of a patient with breast carcinoma. The extreme rarity of the case is outlined.
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