Cases reported "Mediastinal Neoplasms"

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1/177. Occurrence of malignant non-germ cell components in primary mediastinal germ cell tumours.

    methods: Thirty-five patients with primary mediastinal germ cell tumours (PMGCT) underwent primary thoracotomy in a 30-year period (1965-1994). Of the 35 patients, 12 had benign teratomas, five pure seminomas and 18 non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. RESULTS: Out of 18 non-seminomatous germ cell tumours, 14 comprised more than one malignant component. In two cases malignant teratomas had an additional malignant non-germ cell component: one a mixed sarcomatous component and the other a neuroendocrinal component. There were different methods of treatment between 1965 and 1994. All but one of patients with seminomas survived for 5 years. Among 18 patients with malignant PMGCT, all but two died within 5 years (mean survival rate was 15 months). CONCLUSIONS: When planning treatment of patients with malignant PMGCT we have to take into account the fact that malignant non-germ-cell components may occur. In this circumstances, surgical resection after initial chemotherapy is recommended.
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2/177. Beta-HCG aberrant expression in primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma.

    We report on a primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma with aberrant expression of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG). The patient, a 33-year-old man, had cough, dyspnea, fever, superior vena cava syndrome, and a mediastinal bulky tumor. A biopsy showed that the latter was characterized by large cells, sclerosis, and compartmentalization. The neoplastic elements expressed CD45, CD20, CD79a and, partially, CD30, whereas they were negative for CD3, epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratins. Surprisingly, they displayed a clear-cut positivity for beta-hCG. The remaining oncofetal markers applied (PLAP and alpha1-fetoprotein) were negative. Electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of numerous nuclear pockets and the lack of intercellular junctions. dna analysis by polymerase chain reaction showed clonal rearrangement of Ig heavy-chain genes. The patient responded promptly to the administration of MACOP-B. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of B-cell lymphoma showing positivity for beta-hCG; a similar aberrant expression was previously observed only in three Japanese patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia. Because primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma has in the past been frequently confused with germ cell tumors, pathologists should be aware of possible beta-hCG expression by lymphomatous cells to avoid the risk of misdiagnosis.
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3/177. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the mediastinum after treatment of a mediastinal germ-cell tumor.

    Three years after four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy for a nonseminomatous germ-cell tumor of the mediastinum followed by complete resection of residual teratoma in a 21-year-old man, a mediastinal recurrence was diagnosed as an extraskeletal osteosarcoma. After unsuccessful chemotherapy and removal of the tumor, the patient died of cerebral metastases. Histologic transformation of the teratomatous components of nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors is an uncommon phenomenon showing a particular aspect of germ-cell tumor biology. We review the literature and discuss the pathogenesis concerning this subject.
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4/177. Hurthle cell adenoma of the mediastinum: intraoperative cytology and differential diagnosis with correlative gross, histology, and ancillary studies.

    A 66-year-old man was found to have a 7.5 cm mediastinal mass detected on routine chest x-rays as part of his preoperative work up for an inguinal hernia repair. An orthotopic (normally located) nongoitrous thyroid gland without evidence of connection to the mediastinal mass was also identified. The clinical differential diagnoses included lymphoma, thymoma, and germ cell tumor. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy smears and touch imprints of the mediastinal mass showed a loosely cohesive, highly cellular population of relatively uniform cells with abundant granular cytoplasm, low nuclear to cytoplasmic (N/C) ratios, and prominent nucleoli consistent with a Hurthle cell (HC) neoplasm. Subsequently, the diagnosis of HC adenoma was confirmed on the surgically excised mediastinal mass. To the best of our knowledge, the surgical pathology and cytologic features of an HC adenoma of the mediastinum have not been reported in the literature. The gross, histologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic (EM) findings, in addition to the cytologic features, are presented along with a differential diagnosis of this mediastinal neoplasm.
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5/177. Intracranial dural metastasis of mediastinal seminoma--case report.

    A 24-year-old male presented with a rare intracranial dural metastasis from a mediastinal germ cell tumor infiltrating the superior vena cava, pericardium, ascending aorta, and lung. Routine chest radiography incidentally revealed the abnormal mediastinum, which was partially resected after median sternotomy, followed by radiotherapy. One year after the radiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right parasagittal tumor mimicking a meningioma. Partial tumor removal was performed. Two cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide were then performed, and the residual tumor almost completely disappeared. The histological diagnosis of both the mediastinal and intracranial tumors was pure seminoma. Sections of metastatic tumor revealed several thick fibrous septa and numerous epithelioid granulomas infiltrated by plasma cells, intermingled between the clusters of tumor cells. Follow up of patients apparently in remission from mediastinal seminoma without evidence of advanced or recurrent disease at other sites is recommended.
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6/177. A primary germ cell tumor of the anterior mediastinum: a case report and discussion.

    The anterior mediastinum is the most common extragonadal location for germ cell tumors and accounts for about 50% to 70% of such neoplasms. Embryonal cell carcinomas are one of the rarest forms and account for less than 2%. We present the case of a 19-year-old, white male who was found to have a primary embryonal cell carcinoma of the anterior mediastinum. This case illustrates the subtle complaints that these patients present with, some of the problems and decisions that go into making the diagnosis, and the response to the appropriate therapy. The following discussion takes a look at the variety of germ cell tumors, the vast differential of an anterior mediastinal mass, the workup of such a mass, and the various treatments and outcomes of extragonadal germ cell tumors.
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7/177. Primary mediastinal germ cell tumor in a middle-aged woman: case report and literature review.

    Although primary mediastinal germ cell tumors are found much more frequently among young males than among other people, we recently encountered a middle-aged woman with the disease. The patient was a 59-year-old woman who complained mainly of anterior chest pain. Chest CT scans revealed a nonhomogeneous mass measuring 7 x 7 cm in the anterior mediastinal area, accompanied by signs suggestive of mediastinal invasion of the tumor. Reduction surgery was performed. The pathologic diagnosis was mediastinal dysgerminoma. The patient received postoperative radiochemotherapy but died due to liver metastasis 11 months after surgery.
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8/177. bone marrow involvement in a primary mediastinal extragonadal non-seminomatous germ cell tumour.

    A case of primary mediastinal extragonadal germ cell tumour with involvement of bone marrow, a rare finding, is reported with a review of literature.
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keywords = germ
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9/177. Case of mediastinal seminoma with testicular microlithiasis.

    Testicular microlithiasis is a rare condition in which calcified concretions fill the lumina of the seminiferous tubules. We report the case of a 19-year-old Japanese man with mediastinal seminoma, normal testicular physical findings and bilateral testicular microlithiasis seen on ultrasonography. Testicular needle biopsy demonstrated multiple laminated calcifications within the seminiferous tubules without any signals of a viable germ cell tumor. To our knowledge, this is only the sixth reported case of extragonadal germ cell tumor with testicular microlithiasis.
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keywords = germ
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10/177. A rare association between malignant mediastinal seminoma and other malignant neoplasms.

    Primary malignant mediastinal seminomas (PMMS) are rare tumors accounting for 1-6% of all mediastinal tumors. PMMS mostly affect young men, arising from primordial germ cells that abnormally migrate from the ectoderm of the yolk sac to the gonadal region. They are clinically and biologically distinct from primary testicular tumors and seem to have a worse prognosis. Due to the rarity of the disease, the choice of treatment is a matter of debate. literature data do not show any association between this kind of tumor and malignant Schwannoma or thyroid carcinoma. In this report we describe the case of a patient affected by PMMS and 12 yr later by a malignant brachial plexus Schwannoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Since both mediastinal seminoma and Schwannoma were treated with surgery followed by local radiotherapy, we were not able to ascertain if either PTC or Schwannoma had been induced by radiotherapy or represented a casual neoplastic association.
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