Cases reported "Mediastinal Neoplasms"

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1/267. Neuromyotonia: an unusual presentation of intrathoracic malignancy.

    A 48 year old woman is described who presented with increasing muscular rigidity and who was found to have a mediastinal tumour. Electrophysiological studies revealed that the muscular stiffness resulted from very high frequency motor unit activity which outlasted voluntary effort, and which was abolished by nerve block. The abnormal activity may have arisen at the anterior horn cell level. Marked improvement followed the administration of diphenylhydantoin.
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ranking = 1
keywords = malignancy
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2/267. Mediastinal choriocarcinoma in a chromatin-positive boy.

    A case of primary mediastinal choriocarcinoma in a chromatin-positive boy is reported. The incidence of neoplasms in patients with so-called Klinefelter's syndrome is discussed as well as embryogenesis and diagnostic evaluation in patients presenting with this tumor.
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ranking = 15.260249109861
keywords = neoplasm
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3/267. plasmacytoma and upper airway obstruction.

    Extramedullary plasmacytomas are hematologic malignancies that occur primarily in the head and neck region. They usually involve the submucosal lymphoid tissue of the nasopharynx or paranasal sinuses and present as soft tissue masses, but have not been previously reported to cause airway obstruction. In general, detection of plasmacytoma antedates the eventual development of the systemic hematologic malignancy, multiple myeloma, by months or years. We describe a unique case of acute upper respiratory tract obstruction secondary to compression by an extramedullary plasmacytoma occurring in the neck of a patient with history of long-standing multiple myeloma. Upper airway obstruction may be a manifestation of untreated plasmacytoma. It is imperative for otolaryngologists and head and neck surgeons to be familiar with this entity because total excision, as well as radiation therapy, for plasmacytomas can be curative in patients without underlying overt plasma cell dyscrasias.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = malignancy
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4/267. Amphicrine tumor.

    The term amphicrine refers to cells, and tumors, which show both exocrine and endocrine features. Author s aim was to analyse the characteristics of these neoplasms. 40 suspicious cases were reviewed. Mucin-stains (PAS, diastase-PAS, Stains-all, Alcian-blue), immunohistochemistry (antibodies against Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE), and chromogranin a (CGA), and electronmicroscopic studies were performed to demonstrate exocrine and/or endocrine features of the tumor cells. By means of these methods, 16 cases turned out to be amphicrine tumors. Among them, there were 4 sinonasal, 1 bronchial, 1 mediastinal, 8 gastrointestinal and 2 suprarenal gland neoplasms. In connection to the subject, a brief review is given of amphicrine tumor, regarding its etiological and pathological aspects. These tumors form a distinct clinicopathological entity and should be separated from both neuroendocrine tumors and adenocarcinomas.
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ranking = 30.520498219722
keywords = neoplasm
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5/267. Giant cell tumor of the thoracic spine simulating mediastinal neoplasm.

    A case of giant cell tumor of the thoracic spine simulating mediastinal neoplasm was identified on plain films, CT scans, MR images, and with scintigraphy. CT showed a hypervascular soft-tissue mass with shell-like calcification in the right upper mediastinum. MR imaging showed a collapse of the T1 vertebral body and a mass extending to the mediastinum. The mass had a low signal on T1-weighted MR images and a predominantly high signal on T2-weighted images with heterogeneity. technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy showed intense uptake in both the T1 and marginal parts of the mediastinal mass. There was no accumulation of gallium-67 citrate, but 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed marked uptake. The variation in these imaging findings played an important role in the differential diagnosis of this uncommon mediastinal mass.
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ranking = 76.301245549304
keywords = neoplasm
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6/267. Metastatic paraganglioma and paraneoplastic-induced anemia in an adolescent: treatment with hepatic arterial chemoembolization.

    Mediastinal paragangliomas are rare neoplasms in children. anemia, as a paraneoplastic syndrome, has been described in adults with metastatic paraganglioma. The management of paraneoplastic anemia from metastatic paraganglioma has been problematic, with no reports in the literature describing successful treatment. This article describes a 17-year-old Jehovah's Witness with a mediastinal paraganglioma, hepatic metastases, and severe anemia. The patient and his family refused blood products and the anemia was refractory to erythropoietin and elemental iron therapy. Serial chemoembolization of the hepatic lesions resulted in resolution of the anemia, allowing subsequent debulking of the mediastinal paraganglioma.
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ranking = 15.260249109861
keywords = neoplasm
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7/267. Hurthle cell adenoma of the mediastinum: intraoperative cytology and differential diagnosis with correlative gross, histology, and ancillary studies.

    A 66-year-old man was found to have a 7.5 cm mediastinal mass detected on routine chest x-rays as part of his preoperative work up for an inguinal hernia repair. An orthotopic (normally located) nongoitrous thyroid gland without evidence of connection to the mediastinal mass was also identified. The clinical differential diagnoses included lymphoma, thymoma, and germ cell tumor. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy smears and touch imprints of the mediastinal mass showed a loosely cohesive, highly cellular population of relatively uniform cells with abundant granular cytoplasm, low nuclear to cytoplasmic (N/C) ratios, and prominent nucleoli consistent with a Hurthle cell (HC) neoplasm. Subsequently, the diagnosis of HC adenoma was confirmed on the surgically excised mediastinal mass. To the best of our knowledge, the surgical pathology and cytologic features of an HC adenoma of the mediastinum have not been reported in the literature. The gross, histologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic (EM) findings, in addition to the cytologic features, are presented along with a differential diagnosis of this mediastinal neoplasm.
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ranking = 30.520498219722
keywords = neoplasm
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8/267. Sudden death in a child due to an intrathoracic paraganglioma.

    A 12-year-old boy under treatment for asthma was found dead in his home. The autopsy revealed a large posterior mediastinal mass that completely compressed the upper lobe of the right lung and the associated airways. This mass extended from the right costovertebral sulcus into the thoracic spinal canal through the spinal foramen and compressed the spinal cord. It was located in the epidural space and was adherent to a nerve root. The histologic and immunocytochemical features were that of a paraganglioma. Although neurogenic tumors are the most common posterior mediastinal masses in the pediatric population, paragangliomas are rare, and spinal involvement has not been described in children. In addition, sudden death has not been reported in association with any of the 13 cases of posterior mediastinal paraganglioma described in the literature as involving the spine. This case illustrates an unusual cause of sudden death in a pediatric patient due to a benign neoplasm.
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ranking = 15.260249109861
keywords = neoplasm
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9/267. Cytokeratin-positive malignant tumors with reticulum cell morphology: a subtype of fibroblastic reticulum cell neoplasm?

    Cytokeratin-positive interstitial reticulum cells (CIRCs) have been described as a subset of fibroblastic reticulum cells (FBRCs) normally found in lymph nodes, the spleen, and tonsils. Although tumors derived form other reticulum (dendritic) cells, specifically follicular dendritic cells, interdigitating dendritic cells, and cytokeratin-negative FBRCs, have been well documented and are now accepted, this is not the case for tumors of CIRCs. A possible reason for this failure is the difficulty in distinguishing them from other tumors, particularly carcinoma. We report three cases of cytokeratin-positive malignant tumors with a reticulum cell morphology: two located in the mediastinum and one in the soft tissue in the proximal forearm. All cases coexpressed vimentin, and one case coexpressed smooth muscle actin and desmin, resulting in a phenotype similar to that of some normal CIRCs. Although metastatic carcinoma from an occult or regressed primary tumor cannot be excluded completely, we raise the possibility of a CIRC origin for these cases.
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ranking = 61.040996439443
keywords = neoplasm
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10/267. Bursting metastasis in thymic carcinoma.

    Thymic carcinomas (primitive malignant epithelial neoplasms of the thymus) are rare tumors which generally remain silent for long periods and rarely metastatize outside the chest. The authors present a case of a 49 year-old patient, with mediastinal mass complicated by pericardial effusion and rapidly extensive liver metastasis. Data in the literature indicate that completeness of the excision at initial operation is the most important prognostic factor, but the presence of necrosis, high number of mitosis and endolymphatic emboli in the specimens could indicate a poor prognosis, suggesting a tempestive treatment and a close follow-up.
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ranking = 15.260249109861
keywords = neoplasm
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