Cases reported "Mediastinitis"

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11/45. mediastinitis presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin.

    A 55 year old female was admitted as a case of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) of 2 months duration. She had developed throat ache, progressive dysphagia for both solids and liquids, dry cough and retrosternal pain for one week. Examination revealed fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea and a soft tissue warm tender, erythematous, non-fluctuant swelling in lower anterior neck with chest findings suggestive of bilateral pleural effusion. Plain x-rays of the neck and chest strengthened the clinical suspicion of cellulitis of lower neck with bilateral pleural effusion. CT scan confirmed the radiologic findings and also revealed pericardial effusion and thickening; small mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinitis. Patient responded to parenteral antibiotics (ceftriaxone and metronidazole) and hydrocortisone with complete resolution in 10 days.
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12/45. Regarding three cases of descending necrotizing mediastinitis: spiral CT assessment.

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a rare and life-threatening complication of deep neck space infection which occurs when infection spreads from the deep spaces of the neck, propagating within the soft tissue into the mediastinal spaces. The disease has a high mortality rate due to frequent delay in diagnosis and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is important in determining the level of infection, showing the presence and extension of fluid collections (with or without gas bubbles) and diffuse soft-tissue infiltration of the mediastinal fat, and indicating the best surgical approach and progress of treatment. Three cases of DNM evaluated with spiral CT from June 1999 to June 2001 are presented.
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13/45. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis: a minimally invasive approach using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.

    BACKGROUND: Descending necrotizing mediastinitis is a rare but serious disease. Aggressive surgical approaches have been emphasized rather than simple medical treatment. methods: Four patients with descending necrotizing mediastinitis were treated surgically in our institution between January 2001 and August 2002. Three had peritonsilar abscesses and one had an odontogenic abscess. Operative procedures included drainage and debridement through a Chamberlain incision and neck incision using video-assisted thoracic surgery. RESULTS: The mean duration from symptoms to operation was 5.3 days (range, 3 to 7) and mean hospital stay was 28.8 days (range, 14 to 47). There was no perioperative mortality. postoperative complications were found in three patents: two with localized pleural effusion and one with a hydropneumothorax. CONCLUSIONS: Video-assisted thoracic surgery is feasible and effective as a less invasive method for the surgical management of patients with descending necrotizing mediastinitis, especially when applied early.
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14/45. Successful thoracoscopic debridement of descending necrotizing mediastinitis.

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis results from odontogenic, deep neck infection that spreads along fascial planes into the mediastinum. Although the optimal surgical approach remains controversial, nearly half of the cases require mediastinal debridement by thoracotomy. We report a case of successful thoracoscopic debridement for descending necrotizing mediastinitis due to odontogenic infection that failed to be drained by transcervical approach. Because of less invasiveness as compared with standard thoracotomy, the thoracoscopic approach should be used as early as possible in case of unsuccessful transcervical approach.
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15/45. How serious are oral infections?

    life-threatening conditions following dental infections have been rare since antibiotics were introduced into the world of medicine. However, infections spreading through the soft tissues of the head and neck are encountered occasionally and mortality is still reported as a result of sepsis or airway embarrassment. A case of ludwig's angina from odontogenic infection that progressed into mediastinitis and pericarditis is presented. The steps adopted in the management of this case highlight the significance of early recognition and diagnosis of the source of deep cervical infections, the importance of securing the airway, effecting surgical drainage and aggressive intravenous antibiotic therapy.
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16/45. Descending necrotising mediastinitis: a report of misdiagnosis as thoracic aortic dissection.

    Descending necrotising mediastinitis is an uncommon disease in the emergency department. Early recognition is important for a good prognosis for this fatal condition. This report describes a case of a healthy 79 year old woman who was seen in the urgent care centre with the initial presentation of chest pain. Misdiagnosis was made because of the mis-reading of a flap-like artefact over the ascending aorta and difficulty interpreting subtle change of mediastinal soft tissue infiltration. The patient was then treated as dissecting aneurysm over ascending aorta until her condition deteriorated. Although aggressive treatment comprising thoracotomy, cervical incision and drainage, and antibiotics were begun, the response was poor. Emergency physicians should be familiar with this rare but highly lethal disease. Correlation should be made in a patient complaining about chest pain, especially combined with fever, sore throat, dysphagia, or neck swelling.
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17/45. Acute mediastinitis resulting from an unsuspected fish bone--case report.

    Acute mediastinitis is a serious medical condition with a mortality rate from 30 to 40% or even higher. early diagnosis with prompt and aggressive treatment is essential to prevent its rapid progression. Severe odynophagia and respiratory distress with positive neck or chest findings should raise suspicion of mediastinitis. We report a rare case of acute mediastinitis secondary to the unexpected migration of an impacted fish bone from the esophagus.
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18/45. mediastinitis from odontogenic infection. A case report.

    We report a case of mediastinitis complicating a dental infection in a 40-year-old male. Despite drainage of the localised neck abscess and the administration of systemic antibiotics, his submandibular abscess extended to involve the pericardial and pleural cavities. drainage procedures and thoracotomies were required to treat the empyema and purulent pericarditis. Computed tomography was used to follow the progression of disease and assess the efficacy of treatment.
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19/45. ludwig's angina: an uncommon cause of chest pain.

    A 71-year-old male with coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tobacco and opioid dependence came to the emergency room complaining of one episode of retrosternal chest pain oppressive in nature of one day of evolution. He had acute respiratory distress and required mechanical ventilation. The initial impression was myocardial ischemia, but electrocardiography and cardiac enzymes ruled it out. During the following hours, neck and tongue edema developed. He was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics empirically. neck computed tomography scan revealed a left parapharyngeal and submandibular abscess. The abscess was drained. The source of infection was found on the second molar of the left lower jaw. The patient improved and was successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation. Despite advances in therapy, ludwig's angina remains a potentially lethal infection in which early recognition plays a crucial role.
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20/45. Planned complex suicide: report of three cases.

    This article presents three planned complex suicide cases. The first case was a 46-year-old man, who had taken some antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs before cutting his right wrist and ingesting a large amount of concentrated hydrochloric acid. In the second case, a 34-year-old man was found dead in his home, hanging by his neck, with a suicidal stab wound on the left side of the chest. In the third case, a 22-year-old woman was found dead, hanging by her neck from a ceiling beam of her grandmother's a storage room, after taking of a solid rodenticide. The histories revealed psychiatric problems in all cases. The investigation of scene, the method employed, the autopsy findings and the interview with their relatives altogether pointed toward a suicidal etiology.
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