Cases reported "Medulloblastoma"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/54. Infectious meningitis mimicking recurrent medulloblastoma on magnetic resonance imaging. Case report.

    This report and the accompanying review of the literature address the challenges, when using surveillance magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, of establishing the origin of newly detected central nervous system lesions. Routine surveillance MR imaging in a 16-year-old boy, whose medulloblastoma had been successfully treated, demonstrated asymptomatic nodular leptomeningeal enhancement of the brain and spinal cord, which was consistent with recurrent disease. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid, however, led to the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Two weeks after completion of antibiotic therapy, the original MR imaging findings were seen to have resolved. This case illustrates the importance of considering clinical and laboratory data, including results from a complete examination of the cerebrospinal fluid, when interpreting the origin of new lesions revealed by MR imaging.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/54. Secondary supratentorial anaplastic astrocytoma following treatment of medulloblastoma.

    The development of secondary tumours is a rare but well known late effect of radiation therapy of lesions in the central nervous system. Most radiation-induced tumours are of mesenchymal origin, but on rare occasions gliomas can occur. We describe a patient in whom a supratentorial anaplastic astrocytoma developed 15 years after surgery and radiotherapy for a childhood posterior fossa medulloblastoma. A concise review of the pertinent literature is given.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/54. Large cell/anaplastic medulloblastomas and medullomyoblastomas: clinicopathological and genetic features.

    OBJECT: medulloblastoma is the most common malignant central nervous system neoplasm found in children. A distinct variant designated large cell/anaplastic (LC/A) medulloblastoma is characterized by frequent dissemination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at presentation and a more aggressive clinical course. The authors report on their examination of the clinicopathological and genetic features of seven such cases encountered at their institution. methods: Eighty cases of medulloblastomas were reviewed and seven (8.8%) of these were believed to fit the histological and immunohistochemical criteria for LC/A medulloblastoma. In three cases (43%) either desmoplastic or classic medulloblastoma was the underlying subtype, and in two cases (28%) the LC/A tumor was found within the setting of medullomyoblastoma. fluorescence in situ hybridization was used in six of the seven cases to characterize the presence of isochromosome 17q, deletion of chromosome 22q (a deletion characteristically found in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors), and c-myc amplification. The patients' clinical histories revealed CSF dissemination in all cases and lymph node metastasis in one case. Isochromosome 17q was found in five (83%) of six cases. Evidence of chromosomal gains indicated aneuploidy in three tumors (50%), and amplification of c-myc was found in three tumors (50%). No 22q deletions were encountered. CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of LC/A medulloblastomas arise within a background of typical medulloblastomas or medullomyoblastomas. As is the case in conventional medulloblastomas, the presence of 17q is a common early tumorigenic event; however, in a significant percentage of specimens there is also evidence of aneuploidy and/or amplification of c-myc. These findings indicate that LC/A morphological characteristics reflect a more advanced tumor stage than that found in pure medulloblastomas or in typical medullomyoblastomas.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/54. Trilateral retinoblastoma variant indicative of the relevance of the retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor pathway to medulloblastomas in humans.

    Results of recent studies have led investigators to suggest that the retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor (rb) gene plays an underappreciated role in the genesis of brain tumors. Such tumors cause significant rates of mortality in children suffering from hereditary retinoblastoma. It has been assumed that the pineal gland, which is ontogenetically related to the retina, accounts for the intracranial origin of these trilateral neoplasms. To address this issue, the authors describe an unusual trilateral retinoblastoma variant. The authors provide a detailed clinicopathological correlation by describing the case of a child with bilateral retinoblastoma who died of a medulloblastoma. The intraocular and intracranial neoplasms were characterized by performing detailed imaging, histopathological, and postmortem studies. karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to define the chromosomal defect carried by the patient and members of her family. An insertion of the q12.3q21.3 segment of chromosome 13 into chromosome 18 at band q23 was identified in members of the patient's family. This translocation was unbalanced in the proband. The intraocular and cerebellar neoplasms were found to be separate primary neoplasms. Furthermore, the pineal gland was normal and the cerebellar neoplasm arose within the vermis as a medulloblastoma. Finally, the two neoplasms had different and characteristically identifiable cytolological and immunohistochemical profiles. The findings of the present study, taken together with those of recent molecular and transgenic studies, support the emerging concept that rb inactivation is not restricted to central nervous system regions of photoreceptor lineage and that inactivation of this tumor suppressor pathway may be relevant to the determination of etiological factors leading to medulloblastoma in humans.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/54. Two male patients with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome from turkey.

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, also known as Gorlin's syndrome, is a familial autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, multiple odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, and skeletal anomalies. Both tumors and malformations of the central nervous system occur with nevoid basal cell carcinoma. medulloblastoma is the primary brain tumor most frequently associated with this syndrome. The authors report in this article two male patients with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a 22-year-old male patient with multiple odontogenic keratocysts, who had medulloblastoma at two years and multiple basal cell carcinoma at 10 years of age, and a 15-year-old male patient with skeletal abnormalities and multiple odontogenic keratocysts in the jaws.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/54. Pseudomigraine with prolonged aphasia in a child with cranial irradiation for medulloblastoma.

    We report a 12-year-old child with episodes of migraine-like headaches with visual and motor auras a year after the surgical resection and radiation therapy for medulloblastoma The patient presented with an episode of headache, prolonged aphasia, right hemiparesis, status epilepticus, and salt wasting. There was no evidence of a structural lesion. The neurologic deficits resolved over a period of 6 weeks. Because of the progressive deterioration in neurologic deficits, the patient underwent an extensive battery of laboratory tests and multiple neuroimages, all of which were normal. The unusually prolonged neurologic deficit in this patient without demonstrable structural lesions and his eventual complete recovery were most likely caused by ischemia in the left hemisphere secondary to vasospasm. This presentation mimics migraine headache. Evidence suggesting that this represents a long-term complication of treatment of children with central nervous system neoplasia is presented.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/54. medulloblastoma in a child with the metabolic disease L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.

    L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (LHGA) is a rare autosomal recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by psychomotor retardation, progressive ataxia and typical magnetic resonance imaging findings, and presents in early infancy. On the other hand, medulloblastomas are very common solid tumors of childhood and infancy. We present a 3-year-old boy with LHGA who developed a medulloblastoma during the course of the disease. There has been no previous report of the coexistence of medulloblastomas with LHGA. central nervous system tumors are encountered in children with other metabolic neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this paper is to focus on the difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of an intracranial tumor in a child already neurologically impaired due to metabolic neurodegenerative disease.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/54. Organ donor with cerebellar medulloblastoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    transplantation of organs and tissues procured from brain-dead organ donor (BDOD) is nowadays a common and desirable therapy for end-stag organ failure, especially kidneys, liver and heart. The majority of organs for transplantation are obtained from individuals with massive and irreversible central nervous system injury. This group of organ donors is however unsatisfactory and small according to needs. Significant percentage of multiorgan donors could be found among patients suffering from primary cerebral neoplasms as these rarely metastasize spontaneously outside the central nervous system. The paper presents the case of a 30-year-old male donor with a central nervous system tumor. Histogenesis, pathway of malignant dissemination, prognosis and the use of organ donor with cerebellar medulloblastoma are also discussed.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 3
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/54. Primary intracranial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in a child: a case report.

    Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are rare malignancies. Primary central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATT/RhTs) mostly occur during early childhood and are almost invariably fatal. These tumors show similar histological and radiological features to primitive neuroectodermal tumormedulloblastoma (PNET-MB) but have different biological behaviors. We report a case of primary intracranial ATT/RhT in the posterior cranial fossa of a child. Preoperative radiological diagnosis was PNET-MB, but pathological diagnosis is ATT/ RhT. The case involved a 16-month-old baby boy who presented with severe headache, vomiting, and gait disturbance. He was treated by surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Despite aggressive therapy, he died 19 months after diagnosis. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of primary intracranial ATT/RhT are discussed with a special emphasis on the differential diagnosis from PNET-MB.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/54. Intramedullary spinal cavernous malformation following spinal irradiation. Case report and review of the literature.

    There is a growing body of evidence in the literature suggesting that cavernous malformations of the central nervous system may develop after neuraxis irradiation. The authors discuss the case of a 17-year-old man who presented with progressive back pain and myelopathy 13 years after undergoing craniospinal irradiation for a posterior fossa medulloblastoma. Spinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, performed at the time of his initial presentation with a medulloblastoma, demonstrated no evidence of a malformation. Imaging studies and evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid revealed no evidence of recurrence or dissemination. Spinal MR imaging demonstrated an extensive lesion in the thoracic spine with an associated syrinx suggestive of a cavernous malformation. A thoracic laminectomy was performed and the malformation was successfully resected. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. The patient did well after surgery and was ambulating without assistance 6 weeks later. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the second reported case in the literature and the first in the young adult age group suggesting the de novo development of cavernous malformations in the spinal cord after radiotherapy. An increased awareness of these lesions and close follow-up examination are recommended in this setting.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Medulloblastoma'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.