Cases reported "Medulloblastoma"

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1/71. Peduncular hallucinosis : an unusual sequelae of medulloblastoma surgery.

    Peduncular hallucinations are formed visual images often associated with sleep disturbance and are caused by lesions in the midbrain, pons and diencephalon. In present case report, a four year child, who was operated for midline posterior fossa medulloblastoma developed peduncular hallucinations on 3rd post operative day. traction trauma or the compression of mid brain was thought to be the most possible cause of hallucinations.
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2/71. A hazard of combining the infratentorial supracerebellar and the cerebellomedullary fissure approaches: cerebellar venous insufficiency.

    The infratentorial supracerebellar approach is a popular technique for exposure of lesions of the superior vermis and pineal region. The cerebellomedullary fissure approach is enjoying increasing application as a technique for exposure of the fourth ventricle. Occasionally, a tumor that arises in the quadrigeminal plate or the superior vermis grows to fill the fourth ventricle, and for such a case a combination of the infratentorial supracerebellar approach and the cerebellomedullary fissure approach might be considered. We report a grave hazard of this combination. Two patients with tumors involving the superior vermis and filling the fourth ventricle were managed with a combined infratentorial supracerebellar/cerebellomedullary fissure approach. The first patient, who underwent a bilateral exposure, died on the sixth postoperative day due to massive hemorrhagic venous infarction of the cerebellum. The second patient, who was explored on one side only, suffered a protracted postoperative course characterized by suboccipital pain, torticollis, feeding difficulties and persisting hydrocephalus. Postoperative imaging showed swelling of the inferior vermis and ipsilateral hemisphere of the cerebellum with unilateral tonsillar herniation. Simultaneous compromise of the galenic and tentorial bridging veins and interruption of collateral pathways between these systems and the petrosal bridging veins, as in the combined infratentorial supracerebellar/cerebellomedullary fissure approach, may cause cerebellar venous insufficiency with venous congestion and possible venous infarction.
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3/71. mutism after surgical removal of a cerebellar tumor: two case reports.

    The authors report two pediatric cases of transient mutism that occurred after surgical removal of a medulloblastoma and a pilocytic astrocytoma of the vermis and discuss the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Transient mutism has been described for the first time quite recently, even in cases where these tumors were also surgically removed before. Perhaps improvement in imaging and in surgical techniques made neurosurgeons more daring and some interventions that were judged impossible are routinely performed today. If this is the case, postoperative transient cerebellar mutism might be considered the price that must be paid in order to cure more patients with cerebellar tumors.
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4/71. medulloblastoma in late adults. Case report and critical review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: medulloblastoma in late adults (older than 65 years) is an exceptional occurrence; in fact only 8 cases are reported with complete clinical notes in the literature. methods: The authors describe a case of medulloblastoma occurring in a 68-year-old man and analyzed cases reported in the literature. RESULTS: The overall average age of the patients was 72.8 years (range 67-88 years), and the male prevalence of this tumour (70% of cases) seems to be unrelated to age. There is a lateral predominance in late adults (77.7% of cases). Seven patients underwent operation and subsequently these patients underwent a course of radiation therapy. Only two patient was treated with postoperative chemotherapy. Median survival for seven patients treated was 43.2 months (range 23-96 months). CONCLUSIONS: It is interesting to note that: 1) histological analysis revealed a classic type medulloblastoma (88.8% of cases) similar to the children: 2) site of the tumor is lateral similar to the adults (77.7% of cases).
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5/71. Initial experience with fenoldopam in children.

    fenoldopam is a direct-acting vasodilator that acts at the postsynaptic dopamine 1 receptors in renal, coronary, cerebral, and splanchnic vasculature resulting in arterial dilation and a lowering of the mean arterial pressure (MAP). Preliminary evidence suggests its efficacy in the treatment of hypertensive urgencies and emergencies in adults. We present four children in whom fenoldopam was used to control MAP in various clinical scenarios, including hypertensive emergencies and urgencies, intraoperative reduction of MAP for controlled hypotension, and control of MAP during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The possible applications of fenoldopam and suggested dosing regimens in children are reviewed.
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6/71. Bilateral crossed cerebello-cerebral diaschisis and mutism after surgery for cerebellar medulloblastoma.

    A 7-year-old boy developed mutism after surgery for cerebellar medulloblastoma. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed atrophy of the cerebellar vermis and both cerebellar hemispheres, predominantly on the right side. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m ECD) revealed decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the bilateral thalami, bilateral medial frontal lobes, and left temporal lobe in addition to the cerebellar vermis and both cerebellar hemispheres when mutism was manifest, indicating the existence of bilateral crossed cerebello-cerebral diaschisis (BCCCD). Circulatory disturbance in both cerebellar hemispheres secondary to tumor resection probably caused BCCCD in both cerebral hemispheres, predominantly in the left, via the dentatothalamocortical pathway (DTCP). With recovery of his mutism, CBF increased in the right thalamus, bilateral medial frontal lobes and left temporal lobe. Thus BCCCD was improved, with only a slight decrease in CBF still persisting in the left thalamus. The mechanism of mutism may have involved damage to the cerebellar vermis (the site of incision at operation), the left dentate nucleus (heavily infiltrated by the tumor) and the right dentate nucleus of the cerebellum (affected by circulatory disturbance secondary to acute postoperative edema). The SPECT findings suggested that mutism was associated with BCCCD-induced cerebral circulatory and metabolic hypofunction in the supplementary motor area mediated via the DTCP.
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keywords = operative
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7/71. Disappearing cystic cerebellar medulloblastoma: the ghost tumour.

    A case of medulloblastoma, which disappeared following steroid administration and a single sitting of radiotherapy (8Gy) is presented. At surgical exploration tumour was not found, multiple biopsies were negative. Post operative CT scan too did not show the tumour. Five months later, tumour reappeared in left cerebellar lobe in cystic and solid form. Patient was reoperated and tumour was decompressed. The biopsy showed medulloblastoma. To our knowledge, medulloblastomas are not known to be completely responsive to either of these modalities.
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8/71. quadriplegia in a patient who underwent posterior fossa surgery in the prone position. Case report.

    quadriplegia is a well-known complication of posterior fossa surgery performed while the patient is in the sitting position but is rarely associated with the prone position. A case of an 18-year-old man with a cerebellar medulloblastoma is described. There was no evidence of previous cervical disease. The patient suffered quadriplegia after undergoing surgery in the prone position. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a long hyperintense C2-T1 lesion on T2-weighted sequences. The authors speculate that, during the prolonged period in which the neck was in hyperflexion, overstretching of the cervical spinal cord and compromise of its blood supply might have caused this devastating complication.
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9/71. Medulloblastomas of the cerebellopontine angle.

    It is unusual for a medulloblastoma to occur in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Four of the total 63 cases of medulloblastoma managed in our department between 1988 to 1998, presented with a mass in the cerebellopontine angle. There were two children amongst these four patients, aged eight and nine years. The other two patients were young adults. Three patients had primary CPA medulloblastoma, while the fourth case had a recurrence in this region, following the excision of the primary vermian tumour. All the four cases were managed by gross total microsurgical excision and craniospinal irradiation. One of the two children, developed subfrontal recurrence after 1 year and 8 months of initial treatment, while the other child developed a large recurrence at primary site, within three months of post-operative irradiation. However, the adult patient developed CPA recurrence and subsequent cervical intramedullary metastasis within two and a half years of diagnosis. These three cases succumbed to their disease, between three months to thirty months of their initial management. However the fourth patient, a 20 years female with desmoplastic variant, was well at two and a half years of follow up.
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keywords = operative
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10/71. pharmacology review: the role of ondansetron in the management of children's nausea and vomiting following posterior fossa neurosurgical procedures.

    The management of nausea and vomiting is fundamental to the post-operative nursing care of children. Children who have neurosurgical procedures, especially those that involve the posterior fossa, are likely to experience nausea and vomiting in the post-operative period. The proximity of brainstem emetic centres to the surgical site compounds the usual post-operative risk factors for nausea and vomiting. ondansetron is discussed as an agent that may be more effective than the traditionally-used antiemetics, such as dimenhydrinate and metoclopramide, in this population. nurses must advocate for effective therapeutic measures to manage children's post-operative nausea and vomiting. Advocacy requires knowledge of high-risk groups, accurate assessment, timely intervention, and thorough evaluation of pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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