Cases reported "Melanoma"

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11/38. Primary vulvar melanoma with satellite metastasis: dermoscopic findings.

    A 79-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of a pigmented nodular lesion on the left labium minor. Histopathology of the nodule led to a diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. A pigmented flat lesion on the inner side of the left labium major was also biopsied and was found to be a superficial spreading melanoma. The dermoscopic findings of primary and metastatic vulvar melanoma which simultaneously occurred in the same patient are described. dermoscopy revealed a homogeneous pattern associated with linear irregular vessels in the metastatic nodule, while irregular globules and streaks were seen in the primary melanoma.
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12/38. Local melanoma recurrence: a clarification of terminology.

    BACKGROUND: The current medical literature contains multiple different meanings for the term "local melanoma recurrence." confusion regarding locally persistent and locally metastatic disease makes interpretation and analysis of previously published reports difficult if not impossible. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to present a more precise definition of local melanoma recurrence. methods: A case is reported and the literature is reviewed. CONCLUSION: Owing to the myriad of different definitions that exist in the medical literature, the term "local melanoma recurrence" is ambiguous and at times misleading. melanoma that recurs locally from persistence of tumor at the resection margins has a vastly different prognosis than recurrence developing from local (satellite) metastases adjacent to the surgical resection site. We propose the use of the terms "persistent melanoma" and "local metastasis" as more precise and predictive of a patient's prognosis.
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13/38. Malignant melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract presenting as a bleeding gastric ulcer.

    Malignant melanoma involving the gastrointestinal tract is diagnosed antemortem in only a small percentage of patients with the disease. Presenting symptoms are often non-specific, causing a diagnostic problem. The vast majority of such melanomas are metastatic from a cutaneous primary, however there is evidence that the tumour can arise de novo in the gastrointestinal system. We report a 74-year-old man with malignant melanoma with an unusual presentation simulating a symptomatic gastric ulcer. He presented with epigastric pain, haematemesis and melaena. Explorative laparotomy revealed a large ulcerated tumour with several pigmented satellite nodules in the proximal stomach, multiple ileal nodules and widespread nodal and liver metastases. Proximal gastrectomy and limited small bowel resection was performed. histology revealed the tumour to be composed of nests of epithelioid cells with melanin pigment. The tumour cells showed immunohistochemical positivity for S100 protein and HMB45 antibodies. This report emphasizes that melanoma should be a diagnostic consideration in patients with gastric ulcer.
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14/38. Use of microsatellite analysis in detection of tumor lineage as a cause of death in a liver transplant patient.

    Malignant tumors are a significant cause of long-term morbidity and mortality in allograft recipients. Most solid tumors in transplant recipients are assumed to arise de novo in the setting of chronic immunosuppressive therapy; however, there have been instances in which malignant tumors have been transplanted in donated tissue from apparently healthy donors. We report a case of a 49-year-old liver transplant patient who presented with metastatic melanoma 9 months after transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma and who later succumbed to the disease. To investigate the possibility that melanoma was derived from the donor liver, we used a commercially available polymerase chain reaction-based microsatellite marker assay to perform tissue identity testing. The genetic profiles of the patient's original hepatocellular carcinoma and the melanoma from the autopsy specimen were compared with the profile of the normal donor liver tissue, which was still available for testing. The pattern of microsatellite allelic expression strongly suggested that the melanoma detected at autopsy originated from the transplanted liver.
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15/38. Synchronous anorectal melanoma.

    Anorectal melanoma is a very rare tumor with poor prognosis. Rectal bleeding is the most frequent symptom and surgical treatment ranges from local excision to radical abdominoperineal resection. We report a case of a 75-years-old male patient who presented with a history of recurrent rectal bleeding, and whose histopathological diagnosis was melanoma. Macroscopically, we found two distinct tumors in anorectal region, 0.5 cm and 1.5 cm from dentate line. The first one was pedunculated, on a thin stalk, measuring 1 cm in greatest diameter, and the second one was sessile and nodular measuring up to 2.8 cm in largest diameter. Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical analysis of both tumors confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. This case represents multiple synchronous primary melanoma of the anorectal region, with a possibility that one of the lesions is primary melanoma and the second one is a satellite lesion.
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16/38. Somatic deletion of the NF1 gene in a neurofibromatosis type 1-associated malignant melanoma demonstrated by digital PCR.

    BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common hereditary neurocutaneous disorder and it is associated with an elevated risk for malignant tumors of tissues derived from neural crest cells. The NF1 gene is considered a tumor suppressor gene and inactivation of both copies can be found in NF1-associated benign and malignant tumors. melanocytes also derive from neural crest cells but melanoma incidence is not markedly elevated in NF1. In this study we could analyze a typical superficial spreading melanoma of a 15-year-old boy with NF1 for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) within the NF1 gene. Neurofibromatosis in this patient was transmitted by the boy's farther who carried the mutation NF1 c. 5546 G/A. RESULTS: melanoma cells were isolated from formalin-fixed tissue by liquid coverslip laser microdissection. In order to obtain statistically significant LOH data, digital PCR was performed at the intragenic microsatellite IVS27AC28 with dna of approx. 3500 melanoma cells. Digital PCR detected 23 paternal alleles and one maternal allele. Statistical analysis by SPRT confirmed significance of the maternal allele loss. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first molecular evidence of inactivation of both copies of the NF1 gene in a typical superficial spreading melanoma of a patient with NF1. The classical double-hit inactivation of the NF1 gene suggests that the NF1 genetic background promoted melanoma genesis in this patient.
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17/38. Angiotropism in epidermotropic metastatic melanoma: another clue to the diagnosis.

    The diagnosis of epidermotropic metastatic malignant melanoma (EMMM) can be extremely challenging for both clinicians and pathologists. The diffculties include distinguishing metastatic lesions with an epidermal component from residual incompletely excised primary melanoma, and multiple primary melanomas. This has great prognostic significance as the current American Joint Committee on Cancer guidelines consider localized metastatic disease such as satellites and intransits in the nodal (N) category of N2C or stage IIIB disease. In this report, we present a case of EMMM with angiotropism. Additionally, we discuss in detail the differential diagnosis for recurrence of malignant melanoma with an epidermal component within the scar. Angiotropism may be seen in lesions of EMMM and the current literature suggests that angiotropism is highly suggestive of metastatic melanoma. The differential diagnosis of locally recurrent melanoma with an epidermal component can be extremely challenging and the presence of angiotropism may be a clue to the diagnosis of EMMM.
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18/38. hypotension and disseminated intravascular coagulation following intralesional bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for locally metastatic melanoma.

    Four patients developed serious hypotension and signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation shortly after a second round of Tice bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) injections into locally recurrent cutaneous melanoma satellite nodules. Each of these patients survived following intensive therapy with isoniazid, pyridoxine, steroids, pressors, antibiotics, and cardio-renal support including, in one case, three acute hemodialyses. plasma specimens from two of the four patients caused gelation of lysate from the amebocytes of Limulus polyphemus, indicating the presence of endotoxin or an endotoxin-like substance. in vitro studies on the BCG preparations led us to conclude that this endotoxin activity in the plasma is not the result of direct injection of endotoxin with the BCG preparation, but rather from release of endotoxin from endogenous sources, such as the intestinal tract during a period of relative hypotension following an allergic reaction. Prior immunity appeared to be the consistent factor in the toxic reactions reported herein. Finally, we present recommendations for serial monitoring of these patients and discuss the use of an alternative agent for intralesional therapy.
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19/38. Mohs micrographic surgery fixed-tissue technique for melanoma of the nose.

    Mohs micrographic surgery, fixed-tissue technique, for excision of nasal melanoma provides three important benefits: 1) assurance of eradication of the main mass along with its "silent" contiguous outgrowths, 2) safe management of non-contiguous satellites too small to be visible initially, and 3) safe sparing of maximal amounts of surrounding normal tissues. These benefits are achieved because all incisions are through chemically fixed (killed) tissue, eliminating the danger of disseminating the highly transplantable melanoma cells and permitting the excision of successive layers for microscopic scanning of their undersurfaces by the systematic use of frozen sections. The process is continued to the termination of each ramification. There is no need to remove a wide margin of normal tissue as is customary with conventional surgery. Clinically invisible satellites are not moved or disturbed and can be removed safely by the same method if they appear. The reliability of the method is manifested by the 62.5% 5-year cure in a series of 10 consecutive patients, all of whom had no local recurrence after micrographic surgery.
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20/38. Malignant transformation of an iris melanocytoma. A case report.

    A 34-year-old Caucasian woman was diagnosed as having a pigmented iris tumor showing recent growth and satellite lesions. The tumor was associated with pigmentation of the anterior chamber angle and secondary unilateral glaucoma. After local excision, histopathologic studies revealed the plump polyhedral cells typical of melanocytoma. However, the examination of additional sections showed evidence of malignancy. The diagnosis of a melanocytoma that transformed into malignant melanoma was made and later confirmed by electron microscopic studies. Following surgical excision of the tumor, the eye maintained normal intraocular pressure. There was no evidence of recurrence 4 years after surgery.
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