Cases reported "Memory Disorders"

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1/38. life review of an older adult with memory difficulties.

    The natural life review process involves emotional processing of events from the individual's past. life review therapy (LRT) addresses issues regarding unresolved conflicts, guilt and resentment which the client has particular difficulty in reviewing independently. People with memory problems may have difficulty mentally manipulating a number of pieces of information at the same time. Since LRT involves recollection of past experiences (events, emotions and relationships) which need to be processed and integrated with the person's current understanding, individuals with memory problems may find this process difficult, though not impossible. This article is written in order to demonstrate that LRT can be useful for people with memory difficulties, provided that individual sessions are tailored to their particular cognitive abilities. A case is presented of an older adult, with above-average intellectual abilities, who became distressed when recollecting her childhood. LRT was conducted in a manner that took account of the memory difficulties and utilized a variety of therapeutic techniques. LRT was beneficial for this client despite her memory difficulties, since, following therapy, she was no longer distressed when thinking about her childhood.
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2/38. Effects of a checklist on self-assessment of blood glucose level by a memory-impaired woman with diabetes mellitus.

    This study evaluated effects of a checklist on the accuracy of self-assessment of blood glucose level by a diabetic woman with memory impairments caused by viral encephalitis. The checklist consisted of 54 steps for operating an electronic glucometer, which the subject performed in sequence and checked off when completed. Following introduction of the checklist, the percentage of steps completed correctly increased in simulated and actual blood glucose tests and yielded clinically useful information.
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3/38. Misidentification syndromes related to face specific area in the fusiform gyrus.

    The "delusional misidentification syndromes" are a group of uncommon and varied disorders in which, in typical form, the patient thinks that a particular familiar person is someone else or a certain familiar place is a duplicate. Although first identified and considered a memory disorder by Pick, evidence in support of this has been difficult to identify. They have been most often seen in various psychotic and organic brain diseases but lesions have been generally diffuse although the right temporal lobe has been implicated. A patient was investigated who abruptly developed a disorder wherein she misidentified her husband as her deceased sister and claimed that her home was a duplicate of her real home that were typical of Fregoli syndrome and Pick's reduplicative paramnesia, respectively. A discrete area of brain damage, probably ischaemic, in this patient was seen on MRI in the anterior part of the right fusiform gyrus and a smaller area in the nearby anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri with associated parahippocampal and hippocampal atrophy. A high order nervous system function that is devoted to the identification of faces is located in the adjacent midportion of the fusiform gyrus and a similar locus for environmental scenes, termed the parahippocampal place area, is present in the bordering parahippocampal gyrus. The misidentification phenomena in this case can be explained by disruption of the connections of these highly specialised areas with the most anterior inferior and medial part of the right temporal lobe where long term memory and mechanisms for the retrieval of information that are required for the visual recognition of faces and scenes are stored.
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4/38. Effect of training frequency on face-name recall by adults with traumatic brain injury.

    Many TBI survivors have difficulty recalling the names of people with whom they frequently interact. Researchers have established that mnemonics and visual imagery strategies are often effective in facilitating encoding and recall of such information; however, no research exists pertaining to the frequency that such training should occur. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative effectiveness of three frequencies of intervention sessions--once per day, two times per week, and five times per day--on TBI survivors' ability to recall face-name associations. Results showed that sessions held daily and twice a week were more effective than sessions held five times per day. Mnemonics and visual imagery strategies were effective for four of the seven participants, regardless of frequency of intervention sessions. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed.
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5/38. Semantic knowledge and episodic memory for faces in semantic dementia.

    Previous studies have documented poor recognition memory for faces in patients with semantic dementia. Preserved face recognition memory was found in this study, however, so long as atrophy was confined predominantly to the left temporal lobe. patients with structural damage to the right temporal lobe were typically impaired, with the status of the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus (including the perirhinal cortex) on the right being critical. Two single-case studies of patients with predominantly left temporal lobe pathology confirmed good recognition memory for famous faces, even if semantic knowledge about the celebrities depicted was severely degraded. An effect of semantic knowledge on recognition memory became apparent only when perceptually different photographs of the famous people were used at study and test. These results support the view that new episodic learning typically draws on information from both perceptual and semantic systems.
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6/38. A developmental phonological short-term memory deficit: a case study.

    A developmental case of phonological short-term memory deficit was studied in a highly educated subject. The subject, BS, who had obtained a Ph.D. in molecular biology, demonstrated striking deficits on some short-term memory tasks, particularly for auditorily presented nonword lists. With visual presentation and with meaningful words, he often scored at a normal level. The results indicate a deficit in retaining phonological information but an ability to use visual, lexical, and semantic information to boost recall. Despite this phonological short-term memory deficit, BS scored at a normal level on a syntactic comprehension test and on reading of nonwords. He was impaired, however, on repeated list learning, learning of foreign vocabulary, and transcribing dictated materials. The implications of these results for models of short-term memory and the uses of phonological retention in cognitive processing are discussed.
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7/38. Neuropsychological profile of a 9-year-old child with subcortical band heterotopia or 'double cortex'.

    Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) or 'double cortex', is a congenital brain abnormality that results from aberrant migration of neurons during development of the cortex. MRI shows a continuous band of heterotopic grey matter located between the cortex and ventricular walls, separated from them by a thin layer of white matter. The condition is quite rare, found predominantly in females, and is occasionally familial with an X-linked dominant inheritance. Current research has focused on genetic and neurological correlates, with cognitive assessment restricted to a global measure of general intellectual functioning. This paper describes in detail the results of a neuropsychological assessment of a 9-year-old female recently diagnosed with SBH. Predominant features were a significantly reduced speed of processing for visuomotor and oral output and reduced immediate registration of information. This difficulty has functional implications affecting skill acquisition, learning in the classroom, and social interaction.
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8/38. anomia for common names and geographical names with preserved retrieval of names of people: a semantic memory disorder.

    This paper describes the case of an anomic patient (FH) who is impaired at naming pictures of objects but has no difficulties in recalling the names of familiar people. Even though his performance on McKenna's (1997) Category Specific Naming Test was at the first percentile, he consistently recalled the names of familiar people as successfully as controls. It is argued that the pattern of performance displayed by FH represents a much clearer double dissociation with proper name anomia than any case previously reported (Cipolotti et al., 1993; Semenza and Sgaramella, 1993). FH is unable to provide detailed semantic information about many of the objects that he cannot name, even though he can recall semantic information about familiar people. Consequently his case appears to represent the mirror image of the proper name anomic patient (APA) described by Miceli et al. (2000) who was unable to recall detailed semantic information about many of the people she was unable to name. Further investigation of FH's anomia revealed impairments in retrieving both common nouns and verbs, and difficulties in retrieving and comprehending geographical names. It is argued that FH's preserved ability to name and recall biographical information about people supports the view that knowledge about familiar people may be subserved by its own dedicated neural subsystem (Kay and Hanley, 1999; Miceli et al., 2000; Gentileschi et al., 2001).
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9/38. Is the attentional blink effect located in short-term memory?

    The attentional blink (AB) effect is characterized by a failure to detect a second target following the identification of a previous target in a RSVP stream. This effect has been attributed to capacity limitations at a central level of visual information processes. Postperceptual models suppose that the AB locus is located in short-term memory. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of a short-term memory deficit on the AB effect in a patient with such a deficit. The three main results of this study are (1) the persistence of an AB effect, (2) a large number of T1 missed identifications and (3) a T2 detection deficit for a specific delay (367 ms). These results indicate that a short-term memory deficit disrupts the processing of each target (T1 and T2) but does not product an abolition of the AB effect.
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10/38. Effects of frontal lobe damage on interference effects in working memory.

    Working memory is hypothesized to comprise a collection of distinct components or processes, each of which may have a unique neural substrate. Recent neuroimaging studies have isolated a region of the left inferior frontal gyrus that appears to be related specifically to one such component: resolving interference from previous items in working memory. In the present study, we examined working memory in patients with unilateral frontal lobe lesions by using a modified version of an item recognition task in which interference from previous trials was manipulated. In particular, we focused on patient R.C., whose lesion uniquely impinged on the region identified in the neuroimaging studies of interference effects. We measured baseline working memory performance and interference effects in R.C. and other frontal patients and in age-matched control subjects and young control subjects. Comparisons of each of these groups supported the following conclusions. Normal aging is associated with changes to both working memory and interference effects. patients with frontal damage exhibited further declines in working memory but normal interference effects, with the exception of R.C., who exhibited a pronounced interference effect on both response time and accuracy. We propose that the left inferior frontal gyrus subserves a general, nonmnemonic function of selecting relevant information in the face of competing alternatives and that this function may be required by some working memory tasks.
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