Cases reported "Memory Disorders"

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1/156. The bare bones of object recognition: implications from a case of object recognition impairment.

    Three experiments were designed to investigate the performance of a patient (RK) who could name objects when presented in conventional views but showed catastrophic failures in identification from unconventional views. The aim of all three experiments was to assess the properties of the central representations that allow recognition of objects presented in conventional but not unconventional views. All three experiments showed that RK had problems in object identification not apparent from his naming performance. In the first experiment, RK was found to be extremely impaired at recognising the parts of objects even though he could name the whole object. In the second experiment, alterations in colour, shape and parts of objects were undetected in stimuli that he could name. In the third experiment, RK showed considerable difficulty with mirror-images and inversion tasks. The explanation for RK's impaired object recognition could not be attributed to defects to his early visual processing. We argue that RK's recognition is achieved through abstract (object-centred) representations that are global rather than local, and quite independent of their spatial framework. These abstract representations we take to be the essential bare bones for object recognition.
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keywords = impairment
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2/156. myotonic dystrophy and progressive cognitive decline: a common condition or two separate problems?

    We report the case of NG, a 43-year old woman with myotonic dystrophy (MYD) who has shown a slow decline in both motor and cognitive abilities since her referral to us at age 32. MYD is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by weakening and wasting of the muscles together with impaired muscle relaxation. Cognitive abilities are usually little affected in the adult onset form, although there is a high risk of cognitive impairment in those with childhood onset. Cognitive decline is also typically associated with maternal inheritance. NG, who was diagnosed with MYD at the age of 18, inherited it from her father. We report the decline in NG's cognitive abilities over 11 years of longitudinal assessment, and consider whether she is an atypical MYD patient or whether the MYD and cognitive decline are attributable to two separate pathological processes.
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ranking = 3.8191784973185
keywords = cognitive impairment, impairment
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3/156. Fractionation of visual memory: evidence from a case with multiple neurodevelopmental impairments.

    It is known that the adult visual memory system is fractionable into functionally independent cognitive subsystems, selectively susceptible to brain damage. However, it is unclear whether these cognitive subsystems can fractionate developmentally. The present study describes an investigation of visual memory of a patient (PE) with multiple developmental disorders. PE was congenitally deaf, had Gilles de la tourette syndrome and autism, with non-verbal ability in the normal range. The patient presented with a recognition memory impairment for unknown human faces. This contrasted with his superior recognition memory for unknown buildings, landscapes and outdoor scenes. PE's memory impairment for faces could not be explained by a general deficit in face processing. Interestingly, PE also showed a recognition memory impairment for animals. These findings indicate that different domains of the visual memory system can be fractionated developmentally. In particular, it demonstrates that topographical memory can develop independently from other aspects of visual memory.
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ranking = 1.75
keywords = impairment
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4/156. Reduplicative paramnesia: longitudinal neurobehavioral and neuroimaging analysis.

    Reduplicative paramnesia (RP) is a delusion in which the patient perceives familiar places, objects, or events to have been duplicated. The current case describes the development of RP in an 81-year-old male following a large right frontal lobe infarction. As the patient had been hospitalized previously with hemorrhagic contusions, neurologic, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging data were obtained both prior to and following RP onset. Psychophysiologic data were obtained following the development of the delusion. Both premorbidly and at follow-up, neuropsychological functioning was characterized by significant impairments of learning and memory and frontal-executive functions. Language and visuospatial skills and motor speed were intact both before and after RP onset. The case is described within the context of preexisting theories of RP, and it is surmised that the delusion is secondary to temporal-limbic-frontal dysfunction giving rise to a distorted sense of familiarity and impaired ability to resolve the delusion via reasoning.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = impairment
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5/156. Self awareness: effects of feedback and review on verbal self reports and remembering following brain injury.

    brain injury may produce impairments in self awareness. The magnitude of impairment is often determined by comparing patient self reports with self reports of others (report-report) or with patient performance (report-performance). This paper presents data on the pattern of a self-awareness deficit in memory functioning exhibited by a brain injury survivor 5 years post-injury. The effects of practice and feedback on reporting-recall differences was examined using single case methodology. Several prospective and retrospective self reports were obtained, to allow an examination of reporting about past or future recall. Results showed that recall improved and the magnitude of report-recall differences were reduced with practice and feedback.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = impairment
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6/156. Mnestic block syndrome.

    The case of a patient with largely preserved intelligence, but severe and persistent memory impairments is reported. FA, a 46-year-old patient with the diagnosis of prolonged depression was investigated repeatedly over a two year period with neuroradiological, neuropsychological, neuromonitoring and other methods. While no brain damage was detectable in FA, he manifested continued and severe anterograde and retrograde memory disorders together with an inhibition in his thinking processes. Otherwise, his intellectual capabilities were in the normal range, that is he was not pseudo-demented. Various approaches with drug treatment and psychotherapy failed to improve his condition. The condition is interpreted as 'mnestic block syndrome' and is considered to be related to an altered brain metabolism which may include changes in various transmitter and hormonal systems (GABA-agonists, glucocorticoids, acetylcholine). Whether depression contributes to this syndrome is uncertain from FA's cognitive performance, but may be a possibility.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = impairment
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7/156. Impaired declarative memory for emotional material following bilateral amygdala damage in humans.

    Everyday experience suggests that highly emotional events are often the most memorable, an observation supported by psychological and pharmacological studies in humans. Although studies in animals have shown that nondeclarative emotional memory (behaviors associated with emotional situations) may be impaired by lesions of the amygdala, little is known about the neural underpinnings of emotional memory in humans, especially in regard to declarative memory (memory for facts that can be assessed verbally). We investigated the declarative memory of two rare patients with selective bilateral amygdala damage. Both subjects showed impairments in long-term declarative memory for emotionally arousing material. The data support the hypothesis that the human amygdala normally enhances acquisition of declarative knowledge regarding emotionally arousing stimuli.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = impairment
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8/156. Coeliac disease presenting with neurological disorders.

    It is well known that coeliac disease may be associated with various neurological manifestations. We have had a high index of suspicion of coeliac disease during recent years in our neurological clinic. As a result 10 (7%) out of 144 of our new coeliac patients were detected because of neurological symptoms. The most common neurological manifestations were neuropathy, memory impairment and cerebellar ataxia. In these patient groups screening for coeliac disease with serological antibody tests helps to find patients who may suffer from this disease.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = impairment
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9/156. Short-term memory deficit after focal parietal damage.

    The neuropsychological symptomatology is reported for a 44-year-old patient of normal intelligence, EE, after removal of a circumscribed left hemispheric tumor the major part of which was located in the angular gyrus and in the subcortical white matter. EE had a distinct and persistent short-term memory impairment together with an equally severe impairment in transcoding numbers. On the other hand, his performance was flawless in calculation tasks and in all other tests involving number processing. Impairments in language tests could be attributed to his short-term memory deficit, which furthermore was characterized by a strong primacy effect in the absence of a recency effect. His graphomotoric output was temporarily inhibited. The patient, with a strong left-sided dominance, manifested a bi-hemispherical activation of the Broca and Wernicke regions in a positron-emission-tomographic investigation when required to produce verbs which he was to derive from nouns. The findings in EE suggest that unilateral and restricted lateral parietal damage can result in a profound short-term memory deficit together with a transcoding deficit for stimuli extending over only a few digits or syllables in the absence of any symptoms of the gerstmann syndrome.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = impairment
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10/156. "Developmental dysmnesia": a case report.

    We report a 9-year-old girl who presented from an early age a severe and specific verbal memory disorder, in the absence of a definite etiology. The results of an extensive neuropsychological assessment showed a dissociation between normal visuo-spatial memory abilities and a marked short-term and long-term verbal memory impairment. We argue that our case is affected by "developmental dysmnesia", a condition so far described in two cases only (De Renzi and Lucchelli, 1990, and Temple, 1997). The disorder affected episodic as well as semantic verbal memory. The long term effects on learning and cognition of a memory deficit occurring early in childhood are discussed.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = impairment
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