Cases reported "Memory Disorders"

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11/156. Cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in a case of central nervous system whipple disease.

    BACKGROUND: whipple disease is a rare condition characterized by migratory polyarthralgias, fever, and chronic diarrhea. A subset of patients with the disease may either initially have or eventually develop symptoms of central nervous system involvement. DESIGN AND methods: The cognitive and behavioral functioning of a patient with central nervous system involvement from whipple disease was studied during a 7-month period. Serial neuropsychological evaluations were used to quantify the nature of his cognitive and behavioral profile. SETTING: neurology department of a university medical center. RESULTS: A variety of cognitive impairments were noted, most prominently in the domains of sustained attention, memory, executive function, and constructional praxis. There were striking behavioral manifestations as well, including disinhibition and confabulation. CONCLUSIONS: The case demonstrates a degree of higher-order central nervous system dysfunction rarely observed and quantified in connection with whipple disease, and with important implications for differential diagnosis of certain neurologic conditions. We also call attention to some of the neuroanatomical correlates of this encephalopathic condition.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cognitive impairment, impairment
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12/156. Neuropsychological consequences of cerebellar tumour resection in children: cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome in a paediatric population.

    Acquired cerebellar lesions in adults have been shown to produce impairments in higher function as exemplified by the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. It is not yet known whether similar findings occur in children with acquired cerebellar lesions, and whether developmental factors influence their presentation. In studies to date, survivors of childhood cerebellar tumours who demonstrate long-term deficits in cognitive functions have undergone surgery as well as cranial irradiation or methotrexate treatment. Investigation of the effects of the cerebellar lesion independent of the known deleterious effects of these agents is important for understanding the role of the cerebellum in cognitive and affective development and for informing treatment and rehabilitation strategies. If the cerebellar contribution to cognition and affect is significant, then damage in childhood may influence a wide range of psychological processes, both as an immediate consequence and as these processes fail to develop normally later on. In this study we evaluated neuropsychological data in 19 children who underwent resection of cerebellar tumours but who received neither cranial irradiation nor methotrexate chemotherapy. Impairments were noted in executive function, including planning and sequencing, and in visual-spatial function, expressive language, verbal memory and modulation of affect. These deficits were common and in some cases could be dissociated from motor deficits. Lesions of the vermis in particular were associated with dysregulation of affect. Behavioural deficits were more apparent in older than younger children. These results reveal that clinically relevant neuropsychological changes may occur following cerebellar tumour resection in children. Age at the time of surgery and the site of the cerebellar lesion influence the neurobehavioural outcome. The results of the present study indicate that the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome is evident in children as well as in adults, and they provide further clinical evidence that the cerebellum is an essential node in the distributed neural circuitry subserving higher-order behaviours.
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ranking = 0.06545910335836
keywords = impairment
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13/156. Passive and active processes in visuo-spatial memory: double dissociation in developmental learning disabilities.

    The distinction between passive and active visuo-spatial memory has been useful to interpret various pattern of deficits reported in individual differences studies. However, this interpretation raises the issue of task difficulty, since active tasks could be failed simply because more complex and the corresponding deficit could reflect a reduced capacity of the system. We describe two children with Nonverbal learning Disability whose performance provides evidence of a dissociation between passive and active memory processes. One of the children showed a selective impairment in passive tasks and performed flawlessly in active tasks, whereas the second child displayed the opposite pattern. These data suggest that a qualitative difference between passive and active processes does exist and that differences in performance do not reflect a lower/higher level of task difficulty. Further, these data underlie the importance of formulating theoretical models of visuo-spatial memory including both material-related (i.e., visual vs spatial) and process-related (i.e., passive vs active) distinctions.
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ranking = 0.06545910335836
keywords = impairment
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14/156. Effects of a checklist on self-assessment of blood glucose level by a memory-impaired woman with diabetes mellitus.

    This study evaluated effects of a checklist on the accuracy of self-assessment of blood glucose level by a diabetic woman with memory impairments caused by viral encephalitis. The checklist consisted of 54 steps for operating an electronic glucometer, which the subject performed in sequence and checked off when completed. Following introduction of the checklist, the percentage of steps completed correctly increased in simulated and actual blood glucose tests and yielded clinically useful information.
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ranking = 0.06545910335836
keywords = impairment
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15/156. Number processing and calculation in a case of visual agnosia.

    We describe the performance of a brain-damaged subject who suffered from visual agnosia leading to major difficulties in generating and exploiting visual representations from long-term memory. His performance in a physical judgement task in which he was required to answer questions about the visual shapes of Arabic numerals reflected his agnosic problems. However, he showed no impairment in usual number processing and calculation tasks. This case shows that, despite some commonalities in number and object processing, actual numerical processes are not affected by visual agnosia and can be preserved even when fine visual processes are impaired.
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ranking = 0.06545910335836
keywords = impairment
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16/156. Topographical disorientation consequent to amnesia of spatial location in a patient with right parahippocampal damage.

    We describe a patient who selectively lost the ability to orient himself in the environment after a stroke involving the right parahippocampal gyrus. The neuropsychological assessment showed a specific pattern of impairment of topographical memory; the patient recognised and recalled environmental landmarks but was unable to recall their spatial location. This study provides evidence that different forms of topographical disorientation may be related to distinct mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction. Furthermore, neuroimaging data suggest that a lesion of the right parahippocampal gyrus is critically related to pure topographical disorientation.
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ranking = 0.06545910335836
keywords = impairment
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17/156. Expressive language disorder after infarction of left lentiform nucleus.

    A 53 year old bilingual woman presented with apraxia of speech and writing in English and German after ischaemic infarction of the left posterior lentiform nucleus. Detailed language assessment revealed impairments of articulation, verbal fluency, auditory repetition, interpretation of complex semantic relationships, formulation of definitions and verbal short-term memory. The case illustrates the role of the basal ganglia in speech planning, word retrieval and verbal short-term memory.
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ranking = 0.06545910335836
keywords = impairment
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18/156. Amelioration of specific working memory deficits by methylphenidate in a case of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Cognitive neuroscience has provided an extensive literature on the neuroanatomy and psychopharmacology of working memory. However, while it has been shown that children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) have deficits in working memory, relatively little is known about working memory functions in adults diagnosed with AD/HD. Furthermore, it remains to be seen whether methylphenidate (Ritalin), which is used in the treatment of childhood AD/HD can improve performance deficits in adult AD/HD patients. We have used three paradigms of spatial working memory validated in cortical lesion patients, and psychopharmacological and neuroimaging studies, in order to examine the effects of methylphenidate administration in a case of an adult diagnosed with AD/HD. In the AD/HD patient at baseline testing, performance on a test of spatial recognition memory and on a task of self-ordered spatial working memory was shown to be impaired. Importantly, the impairments on the self-ordered spatial working memory task were ameliorated by an acute oral dose of methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg). These findings provide insights into the possible neurochemical and neuroanatomical substrates of the action of methylphenidate in AD/HD and suggest a useful methodology for further research into this potentially debilitating disorder.
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ranking = 0.06545910335836
keywords = impairment
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19/156. Ictal generalized rhythmic alpha activity during non-convulsive status epilepticus.

    We investigated the repetitive manifestation of non-convulsive status epilepticus with an uncommon ictal electroencephalographic pattern observed in two patients suffering from epilepsy (aged 29 and 55 years). The patients had suffered from epilepsy since the age of 1 and 40 years, respectively. Interictal and ictal neurological, neuropsychological and electroencephalographic investigations were carried out. Non-convulsive status started and ended abruptly, clinically as well as electroencephalographically. The ictal electroencephalographic pattern was a monomorphic alpha activity with a generalized bilateral distribution. Altered responsiveness, sometimes eyelid myoclonia (in one patient) and amnesia were the most characteristic clinical findings during non-convulsive status. Intellectual development was delayed in the patient with early onset of epilepsy. However, this was not the case in the other patient, who developed memory impairment during the course of the disease. In both patients, lamotrigine added to valproate reduced the frequency of status epileptici significantly. Obviously, these patients suffer(ed) from a type of generalized non-convulsive status epilepticus with an uncommon electroencephalographic pattern.
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ranking = 0.06545910335836
keywords = impairment
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20/156. A case study of selective impairment of the central executive component of working memory after a focal frontal lobe damage.

    RC is a 36-year-old man who sustained a closed head injury with bilateral frontal lobe hypometabolism in 1978. In 1994, after a lobectomy of a large part of the left frontal lobe, he presented no behavioral disruption and normal performances on most of intelligence, long-term memory, and executive tests. However, he showed deficits in tasks that implicate short-term storage (i.e., span tasks). These deficits in working memory were explored with regard to Baddeley's model using computerized tasks. On these tasks RC showed normal functioning of the articulatory loops and dysfunction of the central executive component in dual tasks. These results confirm those reported in another single case study by Van Der Linden, Coyette, and Seron (1992) and indicate that dual-task performance may assess one separable feature of executive functions.
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ranking = 0.26183641343344
keywords = impairment
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