Cases reported "Memory Disorders"

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21/156. Spatial working memory deficit in unilateral neglect.

    Based on the similarity of brain areas lesioned in neglect and those activated by spatial working memory (WM) tasks in normals, we hypothesized that neglect may involve spatial WM impairments. A left neglect patient with right inferior frontal and basal ganglia damage performed cancellation tasks, making either highly visible marks (to provide a reminder of visited items), or invisible marks (so only spatial WM could represent cancelled items). Invisible marks led to repeated cancellations for targets that differed only in location, but not for targets with memorable unique identities, suggesting a deficit of spatial WM, with non-spatial WM spared. Neglect was greater for cancellation with invisible marks, consistent with a role for deficient spatial WM in cancellation deficits, but contrary to account solely in terms of attention capture by salient visible marks made in ipsilesional space.
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keywords = impairment
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22/156. Serial order effects in spelling errors: evidence from two dysgraphic patients.

    This study reports data from two dysgraphic patients, TH and PB, whose errors in spelling most often occurred in the final part of words. The probability of making an error increased monotonically towards the end of words. Long words were affected more than short words, and performance was similar across different output modalities (writing, typing and oral spelling). This error performance was found despite the fact that both patients showed normal ability to repeat the same words orally and to access their full spelling in tasks that minimized the involvement of working memory. This pattern of performance locates their deficit to the mechanism that keeps graphemic representations active for further processing, and shows that the functioning of this mechanism is not controlled or "refreshed" by phonological (or articulatory) processes. Although the overall performance pattern is most consistent with a deficit to the graphemic buffer, the strong tendency for errors to occur at the ends of words is unlike many classic "graphemic buffer patients" whose errors predominantly occur at word-medial positions. The contrasting patterns are discussed in terms of different types of impairment to the graphemic buffer.
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keywords = impairment
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23/156. Developmental prosopagnosia: should it be taken at face value?

    This study presents a rare case of developmental prosopagnosia. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed no overt brain abnormalities. EP's basic visual skills and visual memory were intact, as was his ability to judge age, sex and expression from faces, identify facial parts, and make face/non-face decisions. EP was impaired at recognizing famous and very familiar faces and describing visual images of famous faces. He also displayed an anterograde memory impairment for recently studied faces, and performed poorly on tests of unfamiliar face matching, most notably for chimeric faces. It is suggested that EP may be deficient at encoding configural representations of faces. EP appears to have a "pure" (i.e. specific to faces) prosopagnosia, as he shows normal object recognition from unusual viewpoints, good gestalt completion for objects, but not for faces, normal visual imagery for objects but not for faces, a disruption of the inversion effect for faces but not for houses, and performs within the normal range on tests of within-category discriminations, even with unique exemplars of object categories such as famous buildings.
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keywords = impairment
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24/156. Worsening of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms with cognitive decline: case series.

    We present three cases of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms associated with cognitive decline. Patient age ranged from 57 to 70 years old and all patients had war-related PTSD. In each case, the patient had a history of PTSD that was under fairly good control until the onset of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease or vascular or alcohol-related dementia. These cases suggest that neurodegeneration of memory pathways may disinhibit symptoms of PTSD.
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ranking = 15.276713989274
keywords = cognitive impairment, impairment
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25/156. Anatomical and psychological mechanism of reduplicative misidentification syndromes.

    Reduplicative misidentifications syndromes (RMS) are rare memory disorders characterized by the subjective conviction that a place, person or event is duplicated. Even if RMS often follow a right frontal lesion, several studies have stressed the importance of bilateral hemispheric pathology. Moreover, from a psychological perspective, there is uncertainty if this symptom should be considered just as a kind of confabulation or if it should be associated with personal psychosocial and behavioral aspects. We report a patient who developed normal pressure hydrocephalus and RMS one year after a post-traumatic right frontal lesion. At the first neuropsychological evaluation, we found mild impairment of all functions, associated with the presence of reduplicative paramnesia. After the ventricle-peritoneal shunt intervention, we observed a progressive improvement of all functions but the frontal ones. The memory deficit became less specific and the RMS disappeared. We therefore postulate that a focal right frontal lesion is not sufficient to cause RMS per se. Our clinical report suggests that paramnesic events held on reasonable ground, not being just a kind of confabulation.
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keywords = impairment
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26/156. Mobile phones as a new memory aid: a preliminary investigation using case studies.

    Memory impairment is one of the most common concerns following a brain injury of any severity. The use of effective external memory aids can help minimize the devastating effects such memory impairment can have on an individual's everyday life. Reviewed in this report are case studies of five individuals suffering significant everyday memory problems that were given a new memory aid that utilizes standard mobile phones. Measurements included diary-format observations and qualitative feedback. The results of the study show promising outcomes for all of the cases, and have led to recent adaptations to allow for wider and more effective use of this memory aid.
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keywords = impairment
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27/156. multiple sclerosis with caudate lesions on MRI.

    A 31-year-old woman displayed sleepiness and impairment of recent memory. T2-weighted MRI revealed high signal intensity lesions in the bilateral basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem. Although remission was achieved with corticosteroid therapy, she again displayed memory dysfunction and emotional disturbance one year later, at which time MRI disclosed new lesions in the right caudate nucleus and left frontal white matter. Corticosteroid therapy lead to improvement, and she suffered no recurrence on maintenance steroid therapy. These findings suggest that caudate lesions do occur in multiple sclerosis, the manifestations of which can be abulia and memory dysfunction, as in the present case.
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keywords = impairment
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28/156. Cognitive deficits due to asymmetrical bilateral thalamic lesions.

    The cognitive deficits are described in a 20-year-old right-handed man with asymmetrical bilateral thalamic lesions and a lesion resulting in the 'locked-in' syndrome. Memory and intellectual assessment, modified due to the physical and communication difficulties, suggested that the patient had little impairment of verbal intelligence and performed normally on memory test involving immediate recall of new material. There was, however, considerable impairment of organization, planning and in the recall of visual and especially verbal memory, over longer periods. Remote memory was relatively intact, except for chronological errors in time-tagged material, and he was disoriented for year, month and day.
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ranking = 2
keywords = impairment
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29/156. Postoperative cortical venous infarction in tumours firmly adherent to the cortex.

    It is sometimes difficult to separate extra-axial tumours from the cortical veins in case of tumours attaching tightly to the cortex and the cortical veins. We present two patients having a postoperative cortical venous infarction. A 59 year old female had convexity meningioma above the motor cortex where abnormal cortical anastomotic veins developed. Transient hemiparesis occurred after total removal of the tumour because of venous infarction and cyst formation resulting from sacrifice of these veins which were tightly adherent to the tumour surface. A 15 year old boy with immature teratoma of the pineal region, showing several draining veins around the vascular-rich tumour, presented transient drowsiness, diplopia and partial impairment of bilateral visual acuity postoperatively because of localised cortical brain and venous damage. It is important to make an effort to preserve main cortical veins during operation as much as possible, even if the tumour adheres to the cortical surface.
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keywords = impairment
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30/156. Memory lost, memory regained: neuropsychological findings and neuroimaging in two cases of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis with radically different outcomes.

    OBJECTIVE: To report two cases of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PNLE) with similar clinical presentation, but dramatically different outcome and to highlight the role of neuropsychological and radiological evaluation in PNLE. methods: Both patients underwent an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests designed to document general intellectual function, anterograde verbal and visual memory, naming, knowledge and executive ability. In addition, structural (CT and MRI) and functional (HMPAO-SPECT) brain scans were performed. RESULTS: Both patients presented with fairly sudden onset of profound and persistent memory loss in the absence of other neurological symptoms. Their subsequently diagnosed small cell lung cancer was treated with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, leading to remission of the tumour. The memory of patient 1 recovered fully and he died from an unrelated cause 1 year later; neuropsychological testing showed a severe, but isolated, anterograde amnesia, brain MRI was normal and HMPAO-SPECT showed left medial temporal hypoperfusion. Patient 2 remained densely amnesic despite regression of her lung tumour; neuropsychological testing disclosed both anterograde and extensive retrograde amnesia together with more generalised cognitive deficits including anomia and executive impairments, MRI showed gross atrophy of the hippocampus and amygdala bilaterally, and HMPAO-SPECT showed pronounced frontal and temporal hypoperfusion. CONCLUSION: Complete remission from PNLE may occur and seems to be associated with pure anterograde amnesia without evidence of structural hippocampal damage in MRI. By contrast, cognitive deficits beyond severe anterograde amnesia and evidence of destructive medial temporal lobe pathology on MRI seem to be poor prognostic features.
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ranking = 1
keywords = impairment
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