Cases reported "Memory Disorders"

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1/40. Coeliac disease presenting with neurological disorders.

    It is well known that coeliac disease may be associated with various neurological manifestations. We have had a high index of suspicion of coeliac disease during recent years in our neurological clinic. As a result 10 (7%) out of 144 of our new coeliac patients were detected because of neurological symptoms. The most common neurological manifestations were neuropathy, memory impairment and cerebellar ataxia. In these patient groups screening for coeliac disease with serological antibody tests helps to find patients who may suffer from this disease.
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2/40. Effects of guided imagery on memory distortion in women reporting recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    We tested whether having participants imagine unusual childhood events inflates their confidence that these events happened to them, and tested whether this effect is greater in women who report recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse than in women who do not. Participants were pretested on how confident they were that certain childhood events had happened to them before being asked to imagine some of these events in the laboratory. New confidence measures were readministered. Although guided imagery did not significantly inflate confidence that early childhood events had occurred in either group, the effect size of inflated confidence was more than twice as large in the control group as in the group with recovered memory. These data suggest that individuals can counteract memory distortions potentially associated with guided imagery, at least under some conditions.
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3/40. Expressive language disorder after infarction of left lentiform nucleus.

    A 53 year old bilingual woman presented with apraxia of speech and writing in English and German after ischaemic infarction of the left posterior lentiform nucleus. Detailed language assessment revealed impairments of articulation, verbal fluency, auditory repetition, interpretation of complex semantic relationships, formulation of definitions and verbal short-term memory. The case illustrates the role of the basal ganglia in speech planning, word retrieval and verbal short-term memory.
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ranking = 1334.0016126874
keywords = nucleus
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4/40. Misidentification syndromes related to face specific area in the fusiform gyrus.

    The "delusional misidentification syndromes" are a group of uncommon and varied disorders in which, in typical form, the patient thinks that a particular familiar person is someone else or a certain familiar place is a duplicate. Although first identified and considered a memory disorder by Pick, evidence in support of this has been difficult to identify. They have been most often seen in various psychotic and organic brain diseases but lesions have been generally diffuse although the right temporal lobe has been implicated. A patient was investigated who abruptly developed a disorder wherein she misidentified her husband as her deceased sister and claimed that her home was a duplicate of her real home that were typical of Fregoli syndrome and Pick's reduplicative paramnesia, respectively. A discrete area of brain damage, probably ischaemic, in this patient was seen on MRI in the anterior part of the right fusiform gyrus and a smaller area in the nearby anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri with associated parahippocampal and hippocampal atrophy. A high order nervous system function that is devoted to the identification of faces is located in the adjacent midportion of the fusiform gyrus and a similar locus for environmental scenes, termed the parahippocampal place area, is present in the bordering parahippocampal gyrus. The misidentification phenomena in this case can be explained by disruption of the connections of these highly specialised areas with the most anterior inferior and medial part of the right temporal lobe where long term memory and mechanisms for the retrieval of information that are required for the visual recognition of faces and scenes are stored.
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5/40. Improvement/rehabilitation of memory functioning with neurotherapy/QEEG biofeedback.

    This article presents a new approach to the remediation of memory deficits by studying the electrophysiological functioning involved in memory and applying biofeedback techniques. A Quantitative EEG (QEEG) activation database was obtained with 59 right-handed subjects during two auditory memory tasks (prose passages and word lists). memory performance was correlated with the QEEG variables. Clinical cases were administered the same QEEG activation study to determine their deviations from the values that predicted success for the reference group. EEG biofeedback interventions were designed to increase the value (to normal levels) of the specific electrophysiological variable that was related to successful memory function and deviant in the subject. Case examples are presented that indicate the successful use of this intervention style in normal subjects and in subjects with brain injury; improvement cannot be fully explained by spontaneous recovery, given the time postinjury. Five cases (two normal, two subjects with brain injury, and one subject who had stereotactic surgery of the hippocampus for seizure control) are presented. Improvements ranged from 68% to 181% in the group of patients with brain injury, as a result of the interventions.
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ranking = 2
keywords = group
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6/40. multiple sclerosis with caudate lesions on MRI.

    A 31-year-old woman displayed sleepiness and impairment of recent memory. T2-weighted MRI revealed high signal intensity lesions in the bilateral basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem. Although remission was achieved with corticosteroid therapy, she again displayed memory dysfunction and emotional disturbance one year later, at which time MRI disclosed new lesions in the right caudate nucleus and left frontal white matter. Corticosteroid therapy lead to improvement, and she suffered no recurrence on maintenance steroid therapy. These findings suggest that caudate lesions do occur in multiple sclerosis, the manifestations of which can be abulia and memory dysfunction, as in the present case.
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ranking = 266.80032253747
keywords = nucleus
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7/40. Severe personality changes after unilateral left paramedian thalamic infarct.

    personality changes are not uncommon after paramedian thalamic infarction, but usually bilateral or relatively large lesions, often complicated by other neurological or neuropsychological deficits, are present. 'Pure' cases of unilateral lesions are extremely rare. We report that a right-handed, 48-year-old man, who was hypertensive and diabetic but had no prior psychiatric history, developed severe personality changes and a frontal-like syndrome after recovery from acute-onset impairment of consciousness at the age of 43. Other neurological and neuropsychological disturbances, especially verbal and visual amnesia, were unremarkable. MRI showed a very small infarct in the left paramedian area of the thalamus, mainly involving the dorsomedial nucleus.
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ranking = 266.80032253747
keywords = nucleus
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8/40. The improvement/rehabilitation of auditory memory functioning with EEG biofeedback.

    Five clinical case studies (1 normal, 3 brain injured and 1 subject who had a left frontal hematoma) are presented which addressed the effectiveness of EEG biofeedback for auditory memory impairment. A normative QEEG activation database of 59 right-handed subjects was developed, which delineated the QEEG variables which were positively related to auditory memory performance (paragraphs). persons who had experienced a brain injury underwent the same procedure employed in the development of the database. The person's values on the effective parameters of memory functioning were determined. EEG biofeedback interventions were determined by the individual's deviation from the normative reference group in terms of the relevant QEEG parameters of effective auditory memory (paragraph recall). Improvements ranged from 39% subjects who had a follow up assessment that occurred from one month to one year following termination of treatment.
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9/40. Effects of frontal lobe damage on interference effects in working memory.

    Working memory is hypothesized to comprise a collection of distinct components or processes, each of which may have a unique neural substrate. Recent neuroimaging studies have isolated a region of the left inferior frontal gyrus that appears to be related specifically to one such component: resolving interference from previous items in working memory. In the present study, we examined working memory in patients with unilateral frontal lobe lesions by using a modified version of an item recognition task in which interference from previous trials was manipulated. In particular, we focused on patient R.C., whose lesion uniquely impinged on the region identified in the neuroimaging studies of interference effects. We measured baseline working memory performance and interference effects in R.C. and other frontal patients and in age-matched control subjects and young control subjects. Comparisons of each of these groups supported the following conclusions. Normal aging is associated with changes to both working memory and interference effects. patients with frontal damage exhibited further declines in working memory but normal interference effects, with the exception of R.C., who exhibited a pronounced interference effect on both response time and accuracy. We propose that the left inferior frontal gyrus subserves a general, nonmnemonic function of selecting relevant information in the face of competing alternatives and that this function may be required by some working memory tasks.
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10/40. Cognitive rehabilitation as a component of early intervention in Alzheimer's disease: a single case study.

    Early intervention in Alzheimer's disease (AD) should focus on psychological and social needs as well as the provision of medication. One possible component of early intervention programmes for people with early-stage AD is cognitive rehabilitation aimed at fostering the development of strategies for coping with memory problems. The likely relevance of cognitive rehabilitation in early-stage AD is supported by neuropsychological and experimental learning studies, but further work is required to develop clinically relevant interventions, which can be applied in the real-life setting. This paper presents a single case intervention study in which a 66-year-old man with early-stage AD learned the names of 13 members of his support group using a mnemonic strategy coupled with either expanding rehearsal or repeated presentation, or both, within an errorless learning paradigm. Recall scores improved from a mean of 2.31% at initial baseline to 91.46% following intervention, and gains were largely maintained at follow-up. There was no evidence of any increase in depression, anxiety or caregiver strain during the intervention. The results support the view that cognitive rehabilitation interventions may form a valuable component of comprehensive early intervention programmes for people with AD.
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