Cases reported "memory disorders"

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1/438. Utility of a microcomputer as an external memory aid for a memory-impaired head injury patient during in-patient rehabilitation.

    memory deficit is one of the most frequent cognitive complications encountered after brain injury. It is recognized as difficult to treat. Over the past decades, various strategies of memory remediation have been used. Among them, prosthetic devices, such as notebooks and alarms, have shown some benefit. This study describes the case of a 22-year-old man who demonstrated deficits in memory and executive function. In an in-patient rehabilitation setting, a microcomputer was introduced as an external memory aid. With this intervention, the patient demonstrated an immediate improvement in the ability to attend every therapy and ask for every medication on his schedule. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of a microcomputer as an external memory aid for a memory-impaired head injury survivor. ( info)

2/438. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after autologous bone marrow transplantation and alpha-interferon immunotherapy.

    A patient with a stage IV mantle cell lymphoma (according to the REAL classification) was treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. One year later while on alpha-interferon immunotherapy she suffered from progressive loss of short-term memory and reported difficulties in recognizing objects. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a vast ring-enhancing lesion of the left postcentral parietal area. Serial stereotactic biopsies disclosed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy without JC-virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Therapy with subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2) every other day and intrathecal cytarabine once a week was started. After 4 weeks the patient refused further treatment. Nevertheless her condition improved over the next 8 months and MRI scans showed a marked improvement in the lesions. ( info)

3/438. Neuromyotonia: an unusual presentation of intrathoracic malignancy.

    A 48 year old woman is described who presented with increasing muscular rigidity and who was found to have a mediastinal tumour. Electrophysiological studies revealed that the muscular stiffness resulted from very high frequency motor unit activity which outlasted voluntary effort, and which was abolished by nerve block. The abnormal activity may have arisen at the anterior horn cell level. Marked improvement followed the administration of diphenylhydantoin. ( info)

4/438. The bare bones of object recognition: implications from a case of object recognition impairment.

    Three experiments were designed to investigate the performance of a patient (RK) who could name objects when presented in conventional views but showed catastrophic failures in identification from unconventional views. The aim of all three experiments was to assess the properties of the central representations that allow recognition of objects presented in conventional but not unconventional views. All three experiments showed that RK had problems in object identification not apparent from his naming performance. In the first experiment, RK was found to be extremely impaired at recognising the parts of objects even though he could name the whole object. In the second experiment, alterations in colour, shape and parts of objects were undetected in stimuli that he could name. In the third experiment, RK showed considerable difficulty with mirror-images and inversion tasks. The explanation for RK's impaired object recognition could not be attributed to defects to his early visual processing. We argue that RK's recognition is achieved through abstract (object-centred) representations that are global rather than local, and quite independent of their spatial framework. These abstract representations we take to be the essential bare bones for object recognition. ( info)

5/438. myotonic dystrophy and progressive cognitive decline: a common condition or two separate problems?

    We report the case of NG, a 43-year old woman with myotonic dystrophy (MYD) who has shown a slow decline in both motor and cognitive abilities since her referral to us at age 32. MYD is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by weakening and wasting of the muscles together with impaired muscle relaxation. Cognitive abilities are usually little affected in the adult onset form, although there is a high risk of cognitive impairment in those with childhood onset. Cognitive decline is also typically associated with maternal inheritance. NG, who was diagnosed with MYD at the age of 18, inherited it from her father. We report the decline in NG's cognitive abilities over 11 years of longitudinal assessment, and consider whether she is an atypical MYD patient or whether the MYD and cognitive decline are attributable to two separate pathological processes. ( info)

6/438. Fractionation of visual memory: evidence from a case with multiple neurodevelopmental impairments.

    It is known that the adult visual memory system is fractionable into functionally independent cognitive subsystems, selectively susceptible to brain damage. However, it is unclear whether these cognitive subsystems can fractionate developmentally. The present study describes an investigation of visual memory of a patient (PE) with multiple developmental disorders. PE was congenitally deaf, had Gilles de la tourette syndrome and autism, with non-verbal ability in the normal range. The patient presented with a recognition memory impairment for unknown human faces. This contrasted with his superior recognition memory for unknown buildings, landscapes and outdoor scenes. PE's memory impairment for faces could not be explained by a general deficit in face processing. Interestingly, PE also showed a recognition memory impairment for animals. These findings indicate that different domains of the visual memory system can be fractionated developmentally. In particular, it demonstrates that topographical memory can develop independently from other aspects of visual memory. ( info)

7/438. early diagnosis of the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia: how sensitive are standard neuroimaging and neuropsychologic tests?

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of structural (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and functional (single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]) imaging and neuropsychologic evaluation in the early diagnosis of frontal variant frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD). BACKGROUND: Current criteria for FTD stress the need for neuropsychologic and functional neuroimaging abnormalities, yet caregivers report lengthy histories of behavioral change. It is not known when, in the course of the disease, these investigations become abnormal, because few longitudinal studies have been reported. METHOD: Longitudinal study of two patients with serial neuropsychologic evaluation and MRI and HMPAO-SPECT scanning. RESULTS: Both patients, men aged 49 and 50, had major changes in personality, behavior, and social conduct that progressed over 5 to 6 years in a way that conformed to the clinical picture of fvFTD. There was remarkably little abnormality on neuropsychologic testing, and MRI and HMPAO-SPECT findings initially were normal. Over time, however, abnormalities on SPECT, frontal atrophy on MRI, or a neuropsychologic profile more typical of fvFTD developed in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: Standard neuropsychologic tests and conventional brain imaging techniques (MRI and SPECT) may not be sensitive to the early changes in fvFTD that occur in the ventromedial frontal cortex, and better methods of accurate early detection are required. These findings are relevant to the diagnostic criteria for FTD. ( info)

8/438. Reduplicative paramnesia: longitudinal neurobehavioral and neuroimaging analysis.

    Reduplicative paramnesia (RP) is a delusion in which the patient perceives familiar places, objects, or events to have been duplicated. The current case describes the development of RP in an 81-year-old male following a large right frontal lobe infarction. As the patient had been hospitalized previously with hemorrhagic contusions, neurologic, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging data were obtained both prior to and following RP onset. Psychophysiologic data were obtained following the development of the delusion. Both premorbidly and at follow-up, neuropsychological functioning was characterized by significant impairments of learning and memory and frontal-executive functions. language and visuospatial skills and motor speed were intact both before and after RP onset. The case is described within the context of preexisting theories of RP, and it is surmised that the delusion is secondary to temporal-limbic-frontal dysfunction giving rise to a distorted sense of familiarity and impaired ability to resolve the delusion via reasoning. ( info)

9/438. life review of an older adult with memory difficulties.

    The natural life review process involves emotional processing of events from the individual's past. life review therapy (LRT) addresses issues regarding unresolved conflicts, guilt and resentment which the client has particular difficulty in reviewing independently. People with memory problems may have difficulty mentally manipulating a number of pieces of information at the same time. Since LRT involves recollection of past experiences (events, emotions and relationships) which need to be processed and integrated with the person's current understanding, individuals with memory problems may find this process difficult, though not impossible. This article is written in order to demonstrate that LRT can be useful for people with memory difficulties, provided that individual sessions are tailored to their particular cognitive abilities. A case is presented of an older adult, with above-average intellectual abilities, who became distressed when recollecting her childhood. LRT was conducted in a manner that took account of the memory difficulties and utilized a variety of therapeutic techniques. LRT was beneficial for this client despite her memory difficulties, since, following therapy, she was no longer distressed when thinking about her childhood. ( info)

10/438. Self awareness: effects of feedback and review on verbal self reports and remembering following brain injury.

    brain injury may produce impairments in self awareness. The magnitude of impairment is often determined by comparing patient self reports with self reports of others (report-report) or with patient performance (report-performance). This paper presents data on the pattern of a self-awareness deficit in memory functioning exhibited by a brain injury survivor 5 years post-injury. The effects of practice and feedback on reporting-recall differences was examined using single case methodology. Several prospective and retrospective self reports were obtained, to allow an examination of reporting about past or future recall. Results showed that recall improved and the magnitude of report-recall differences were reduced with practice and feedback. ( info)
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