Cases reported "Meniere Disease"

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1/25. The abdominal compartment syndrome: a report of 3 cases including instance of endocrine induction.

    Three patients with the abdominal compartment syndrome are presented and discussed. In one of the patients the condition was induced in an endocrine fashion, since trauma was sustained exclusively by the middle third of the left leg. The development of the syndrome as a remote effect of local trauma has never been reported previously. In all three instances only insignificant amounts of intraperitoneal fluid was found and the increase in abdominal pressure was due to severe edema of the mesentery and retroperitoneum. Since the condition is highly lethal, early diagnosis is imperative, and this starts by carrying a high index of suspicion. Measurement of the intraperitoneal pressure easily confirms this diagnosis. It is emphasized that measurements at various sites, like bladder and stomach, in each patient is essential to confirm the diagnosis, since one of the sites may be rendered unreliable due to intraperitoneal processes impinging on the affected site and affecting its distensibility.
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2/25. intussusception in infants: an emergency in diagnosis and treatment.

    intussusception is an important cause of intestinal obstruction and bowel necrosis in infants under 2 years. Most frequently the ileocaecal junction is involved. Various aetiologic factors, such as Meckel's diverticulum and lymphoid hyperplasia have been identified. Hydrostatic reduction of the intussusception should be attempted, but delay in diagnosis frequently leads to surgical intervention, because of failing reduction. We report a case of a 4-month-old boy whose ileocaecal junction was intussuscepted into the rectum, and therefore could be palpated by rectal examination. Unsuccessful hydrostatic reduction and bowel necrosis because of delay in diagnosis, made surgical intervention necessary. A terminal ileostomy was performed. A second case report considers a 10-month-old boy whose ileocaecal junction was intussuscepted into the colon sigmoideum. Because there was no delay in diagnosis, this intussusception could be reduced hydrostatically. The procedure however was difficult because of a dolichosigmoideum. Recent literature is also reviewed.
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3/25. Abdominal distention and shock in an infant.

    Acute abdominal distention in the pediatric patient may be attributable to extraperitoneal fluid, masses, organomegaly, air, an ileus, a functional or mechanical bowel obstruction, or injury and blood secondary to trauma. An infant who presents to the emergency department with acute abdominal distention and shock is a true emergency for which the differential diagnosis is extensive. An unusual case of abdominal distention, ascites, hematochezia, and shock in an infant, subsequently found to have spontaneous perforation of the common bile duct is reported. This uncommon cause of abdominal distention and shock in an infant is many times left out of the differential diagnosis of an acute abdomen. The presentation may be as an uncommon acute form or a classis subacute type. This patient had hematochezia, which had not been previously reported in association with this entity. Failure to recognize and treat an acute abdomen can result in high mortality.
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4/25. Persistent mullerian duct syndrome with torsion of an intra-abdominal seminoma.

    Persistent Mullerian Duct syndrome (PMDS) is a particular form of male pseudohermaphroditism. Due to the absence or inactivity of Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), no regression is observed of the mullerian ducts in a genotypical and phenotypical male individual. This leads to the development of fallopian tubes, uterus and proximal vagina. The testes often lie intra-abdominally and are exposed to malignant degeneration. A case is described in which the diagnosis of PMDS was made by laparotomy for an acute abdomen, caused by torsion of a seminoma.
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5/25. A preventable cause of acute abdomen.

    Haemoperitoneum is an extremely rare presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma in the industrialised world. We present the first reported case in the UK. In contrast, up to 10% of hepatocellular carcinomas in africa present in this way, the median time between presentation and death being just six weeks. hepatitis b infection at birth and during childhood is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in the developing world. The world health Organisation, UNICEF and the World Bank have all advocated routine hepatitis b vaccination of children. This can reduce the burden of disease in these communities, among people in their productive years of life.
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6/25. Torsion of the fallopian tube in an adolescent female: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Torsion of the fallopian tube is an infrequent but significant cause of acute lower abdominal pain in adolescent females that is difficult to recognize preoperatively, although prompt diagnosis and timely surgical treatment are vital to salvage the oviduct. CASE REPORT: A 17-yr-old virgin presented with sudden and severe right-sided lower abdominal pain with guarding and tenderness, fever, nausea, and vomiting at mid-cycle. Ultrasound scan showed a right ovarian cyst measuring 3 cm in diameter and a normal appendix. There was no leucocytosis. Presumptive diagnosis was a cystic ovarian follicle with ovulatory pain. Her condition improved but did not resolve with supportive treatment. At laparotomy, the right fallopian tube was twisted completely, distended with blood, and necrotic, with a small fimbrial cyst. The left tube, ovaries, appendix, and uterus were normal. Right salpingectomy was performed. Histologic examination revealed diffuse hemorrhagic infarction of the tube and a cyst of the hydatid of Morgagni. She remains well at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained for torsion of the fallopian tube in adolescent females, this disorder may not be detected until after tubal destruction.
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ranking = 0.25
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7/25. Spontaneous common bile duct perforation in adult: a case report and review.

    common bile duct perforation has been reported in adults after invasive procedures. Spontaneous common bile duct perforation is a rare entity as a cause of acute abdomen in adults. A few cases due to choledocholithiasis have been reported as a cause of spontaneous perforation. We report an adult patient who presented with acute abdomen after spontaneous common bile duct perforation due to unknown etiology who was treated successfully.
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8/25. Heterotopic pregnancy: case report.

    Heterotopic pregnancy in a spontaneous cycle is a rare entity with an estimated frequency below one per 30,000 pregnancies. Its incidence evidently has increased in accordance with the widespread use of in vitro fertilization and ovulation induction. We report a case of heterotopic pregnancy in a 40-year-old woman who presented with acute abdominal pain. We also present findings from transvaginal ultrasound imaging.
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9/25. Acute abdomen due to torsion of a pelvic wandering spleen.

    wandering spleen is a rare entity characterized by incomplete fixation of the spleen by lienorenal and gastrosplenic ligaments. wandering spleen can migrate to the lower abdomen or pelvis, and can be either congenital or acquired. It is most commonly found in women of reproductive age, and may be misdiagnosed as an abdominal or adnexal mass. It is usually asymptomatic, but may present with acute, chronic, or intermittent abdominal pain. Here, we report a case of torsion of a huge congenital pelvic wandering spleen and microscopic isolated pancreatic tissue (disconnected from the pancreas) with impending splenic rupture in a 23-year-old female patient. Progressively severe chronic or intermittent torsion of the vascular pedicle of the wandering spleen caused progressive intermittent lower abdominal pain. The patient underwent splenectomy with resection of the long pedicle and the postoperative course was uneventful. The pathognomonic computerized tomography features of this case, including absence of the spleen in the left upper quadrant and the presence of a whirl-like structure running down to the central portion of the distally located large soft-tissue mass and with a notched- (hilar-) like contour, are also described.
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10/25. Torsion of para-ovarian cyst: a cause of acute abdomen.

    Torsion of uterine adnexa is an important cause of acute abdominal pain. Torsion of ovarian masses is quite common and isolated torsion of fallopian tube has also been reported in literature. However, torsion of para ovarian cyst is a very rare. We report a rare case of twisted para ovarian cyst resulting in secondary torsion of the fallopian tube. Torsion of fallopian tube and para ovarian cyst are usually seen in the reproductive age group. physicians need to maintain a high index of suspicion for this uncommon and often difficult to diagnose cause of abdominal pain.
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