Cases reported "Meningeal Neoplasms"

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1/263. Radicular pain can be a symptom of elevated intracranial pressure.

    We report two patients with leptomeningeal metastatic disease, one from breast cancer and the other from a spinal cord glioma, who developed episodic elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), each episode accompanied by the gradual onset of severe spine and radicular pain. Symptoms of pain promptly and completely resolved with opening of the on-off valve of each patient's ventriculoperitoneal shunt. It is theorized that the patients' radicular pain was caused by nerve root ischemia secondary to elevated ICP.
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2/263. Primary lymphoma of Meckel's cave mimicking trigeminal schwannoma: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We report the first case of primary lymphoma of Meckel's cave. The ability of a lymphoma to mimic a trigeminal schwannoma, both clinically and radiographically, resulted in misdiagnosis and flawed surgical strategy. We discuss the characteristics of a Meckel's cave lymphoma on magnetic resonance images, the predisposing medical conditions that should cause the neurosurgeon to add lymphoma to the normal differential diagnosis, and appropriate management strategies. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old African-American woman presented with a 5-month history of progressive facial numbness and pain in all three divisions of the left trigeminal nerve. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the left side of Meckel's cave, with extension into the lateral compartment of the cavernous sinus, without encasement of the internal carotid artery, through the foramen rotundum into the posterior aspect of the maxillary sinus, and through the foramen ovale into the pterygopalatine fossa. The diagnosis, based on clinical history and radiographic imaging, was schwannoma of Meckel's cave. The patient had a history of systemic lupus erythematosus that had been treated with intermittent steroid therapy. INTERVENTION: The surgical approach selected was a frontotemporal craniotomy with orbitozygomatic osteotomy and anterior petrosectomy. The lesion was totally excised, although the gross intraoperative appearance of the lesion was inconsistent with the preoperative diagnosis, and the pathological examination was unable to establish a histological diagnosis on the basis of frozen sections. Histological diagnosis was confirmed on permanent section after surgery as B-cell lymphoma. Evaluation for other primary sites produced negative results. The patient was then treated with cyclophosphamide (Cytotoxan; Bristol-Myers Oncology, Princeton, NJ), doxorubicin (Adriamycin; Pharmacia & Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI), vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy every 3 weeks for six cycles and then by radiation therapy to the affected area. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of lymphoma should be considered for lesions affecting Meckel's cave in high-risk immunocompromised patients. The presence of an apparent dural tail in an otherwise typical schwannoma is the distinguishing characteristic of a lymphoma. The absence of hyperostosis helps differentiate it from a meningioma. At this point, the preferred surgical strategy is biopsy for diagnosis and then radiotherapy and chemotherapy rather than major cranial base surgery for total resection.
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3/263. Cutaneomeningospinal angiomatosis (Cobb syndrome) with tethered cord.

    A newborn presented with a skin-covered lumbar mass with a subcutaneous hemangioma and on a magnetic resonance image (MRI) revealed a tethered spinal cord with a local mass. The mass had signal characteristics compatible with a lipoma. An initial diagnosis of a lipomeningocele with tethered cord was made, and the patient underwent surgical exploration and subtotal resection of the mass. A follow-up MRI revealed that the cord was still tethered, but an additional mass was present. The initial mass with signal characteristics of lipomatous tissue was accompanied by a low-signal mass in the lumbosacral canal, ventral to the cord, and bilateral enlargement of the foramina at the lumbosacral level. Because of a concern for an intraspinal tumor, a second operative intervention was performed. Multiple biopsies of the mass inside the spinal cord, the nerve roots and at the level of the foramina revealed angiomas that had similar pathology in all the specimens. A partial resection of the masses and a release of the tethered cord was performed by sectioning the thickened filum terminale. The diagnosis of Cobb's syndrome was made. The unique association of a tethered cord and the Cobb syndrome is reported here.
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4/263. A leptomeningeal metastasis revealed by sciatica.

    Meningeal metastatic disease usually occurs as a complication of a brain tumor and is exceptionally isolated in patients with solid tumors. We report the case of a 74-year-old woman admitted for mechanical S1 sciatica refractory to drug therapy. She had been treated for breast cancer three years earlier. Physical findings were pain upon hyperextension of the lumbar spine and absence of the ankle jerks. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid sampled during an intrathecal glucocorticoid injection showed 1 g/L of protein and 11 normal cells per mm3. Grade 3 L5-S1 spondylolisthesis was seen on plain radiographs, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging scans. At that point, the patient developed sphincter dysfunction and motor loss in the left lower limb in the distribution of several nerve roots. Findings were normal from a myelogram and a magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain. A repeat cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed 1.1 g/L of protein and 5 cells/mm3. Because of the discrepancy between the clinical and imaging study findings, the patient was transferred to a neurology department. A third cerebrospinal fluid study showed numerous adenocarcinoma cells, and a repeat magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass in the dural sac opposite L2. A program of monthly intrathecal methotrexate injections was started. A fatal meningeal relapse occurred eight months later. CONCLUSION: This case shows that a leptomeningeal metastasis can cause isolated nerve root pain, and demonstrates the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in patients with atypical symptoms, particularly when there is a history of malignant disease.
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5/263. Removal of petrous apex meningioma and microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia through the anterior petrosal approach. Case report.

    A 64-year-old female presented with right trigeminal neuralgia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a tumor attached to the right petrous apex. MR imaging also revealed that the trigeminal nerve was compressed and distorted by the tumor. Tumor removal and microvascular decompression (MVD) were performed via the anterior petrosal approach. The trigeminal nerve was distorted by the tumor and the superior cerebellar artery compressed the medial part of the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve. The surgery resulted in complete relief of the trigeminal neuralgia. Posterior fossa tumors causing ipsilateral trigeminal neuralgia are not rare, and are often removed via the suboccipital retromastoid approach, as MVD for trigeminal neuralgia is usually performed through the retromastoid approach. The advantages of the anterior petrosal approach are shorter access to the lesion and direct exposure without interference from the cranial nerves, and that bleeding from the tumors is easily controlled as the feeding arteries can be managed in the early stage of the surgery. We conclude that the anterior petrosal approach is safe and advantageous for the removal of petrous apex tumor associated with trigeminal neuralgia.
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6/263. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis and cranial nerve palsy as presenting symptoms of a clinically inapparent gallbladder carcinoma.

    We present an occult metastatic signet-ring cell gallbladder carcinoma in a 78-year-old woman, who complained of recurrent headaches, dysarthria, and paresis of the tongue. Cranial imaging showed contrast enhancement of the basal leptomeninges, and the cerebrospinal fluid displayed clusters of adenocarcinoma cells proposed as leptomeningeal carcinomatosis of the breast, lung or gut. However, postmortem examination revealed the gallbladder as the site of the primary carcinoma with focal signet-ring cell differentiation. In patients with progressive neurologic deterioration due to leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, adenocarcinomas from the gastrointestinal and hepatic systems should be considered. It is likely that signet-ring cell carcinomas display an increased affinity to leptomeningeal spread.
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7/263. Metastatic adenocarcinoma masquerading as basal pontine tuberculoma.

    Tuberculous infection of the central nervous system is common in hong kong. A 39-year-old woman presented with isolated right sixth nerve palsy which was non-progressive for 10 months. Neuro-imaging revealed a right pontine lesion. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed lymphocytic meningitis with negative bacteriological and cytological studies. Empirical antituberculous drugs with initial corticosteroid resulted in improved CSF parameters. A diagnosis of cerebral tuberculoma complicated by meningitis was made. She subsequently deteriorated clinically and radiologically. Despite a number of clinical features which were atypical of leptomeningeal metastasis, adenosquamous carcinoma was found on biopsy. Her relatively indolent clinical course might be due to the initial corticosteroid treatment. This report illustrates the importance of early tissue diagnosis in uncertain cases of chronic lymphocytic meningitis.
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8/263. Leptomeningeal metastases from ethmoid sinus adenocarcinoma: clinico-radiological correlation.

    A patient with sinonasal adenocarcinoma is presented with leptomeningeal metastases affecting multiple cranial nerves and spinal nerve roots. head and neck cancer is known to be an extremely rare source for leptomeningeal metastatic spread. The cranial nerves, the spinal cord and roots and the cerebral hemispheres can be affected in case of leptomeningeal metastatic spread. Examination of the CSF is the hallmark of the diagnosis if leptomeningeal metastatic spread is suspected, but this case illustrates that the combination of specific clinical features on one hand and specific lesions on the Gd-enhanced T1-weighted MRI study on the other hand is reliable enough to make a presumed diagnosis if the CSF analysis remains negative. We suggest that in our patient direct leptomeningeal spread occurred through the cribriform plate to the CSF, followed by further spread in a gravity dependent way.
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9/263. Adenoid cystic carcinoma metastatic to the dura: report of two cases.

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) originating in the salivary and lacrimal glands usually spreads to the intracranial space by following cranial nerves into the cavernous sinus, temporal bone and cerebellopontine angle. We present two cases in which ACC metastasized extensively to the dura, suggesting that ACC has an affinity for the dura. Case 1, a 43-year-old man, was operated on 12 years earlier for invasive ACC of the right palate. He experienced recurrence of the tumor in the left cavernous sinus and sella, and extensive involvement of the dura of both right and left temporal fossae. Case 2, a 33-year-old woman, had spread of ACC to the right convexity dura and tentorium after undergoing a resection of a left-sided ACC tumor of the lacrimal gland two years earlier. Both patients underwent multiple resections and radiation treatment. Extensive, multifocal, bilateral spread of ACC to the dura in both cases indicates that ACC has an affinity for the dura.
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10/263. Melanocytoma of the left optic nerve head and right retrobulbar optic neuropathy compressed by a tuberculum sellae meningioma.

    A 40-year-old woman had a highly pigmented, slightly elevated tumor on the left optic disc. She had no visual disturbance in the left eye. The tumor was stationary for 5 years. At age 45 years, she complained of decreased visual acuity in the right eye. magnetic resonance imaging showed a right-shifted homogeneous lesion at the tuberculum sellae. Histopathologic study of the excised lesion revealed interlacing bundles of spindle-shaped fibroblast-like cells with whorl formation. We believe that a relationship between melanocytoma of the optic nerve head and a tuberculum sellae meningioma may exist rather than a chance occurrence, as previously suggested by others.
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