Cases reported "Meningitis, Aseptic"

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1/18. A rare case of cotrimoxazole-induced eosinophilic aseptic meningitis in an hiv-infected patient.

    A case of cotrimoxazole-induced meningoencephalitis in an hiv-infected patient without signs of AIDS is reported. The patient developed an apparently generalized seizure, of cotrimoxazole, 1 month after first taking a dose of this drug and a febrile coma after a second dose 3 weeks later. Lumbar puncture revealed eosinophilic aseptic meningitis. The patient quickly recovered without sequelae and was given antiretroviral therapy plus pentamidine aerosolized and pyrimethamine as prophylaxis for opportunistic infections. No other adverse effects were observed. The report describes the diagnosis of this case supported by a commentary, including a literature review.
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2/18. Aseptic meningitis in the newborn and young infant.

    When a toxic newborn or young infant presents with fever and lethargy or irritability, it is important to consider the diagnosis of meningitis even if the classic localizing signs and symptoms are absent. cerebrospinal fluid should be obtained (unless lumbar puncture is clinically contraindicated) to enable initial therapy to be planned. Initial results of cerebrospinal fluid testing may not conclusively differentiate between aseptic and bacterial meningitis, and antimicrobial therapy for all likely organisms should be instituted until definitive culture results are available. Comprehensive therapy, including antibacterial and antiviral agents, should continue until a cause is identified and more specific therapy is initiated, an etiology is excluded or the patient improves considerably and the course of antimicrobial therapy is completed. Group B streptococcus is the most common bacterial etiologic agent in cases of meningitis that occur during the first month after birth. Etiologies of aseptic meningitis include viral infection, partially treated bacterial meningitis, congenital infections, drug reactions, postvaccination complications, systemic diseases and malignancy. Long-term sequelae of meningitis include neuromuscular impairments, learning disabilities and hearing loss. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to improved outcome.
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3/18. hyponatremia-induced metabolic encephalopathy caused by Rathke's cleft cyst: a case report.

    Rathke's cleft cysts are sometimes associated with aseptic meningitis or metabolic encephalopathy due to hyponatremia. We treated such a case manifest by lethargy, fever and electroencephalographic abnormalities. A 68-year-old man was admitted to our ward after experiencing general malaise, nausea and vomiting and then high fever and lethargy. On admission, he was drowsy and had nuchal rigidity and Kernig's sign. Physically, he was pale with dry, thickened skin. He had lost 5.0 kg of body weight in the last month. His serum sodium was 115 mEq/l. He had a low serum osmotic pressure (235 mOsmol/l) and a high urine osmotic pressure (520 mOsmol/l). His urine volume was 1200-1900 ml/24 h with a specific gravity of 1008-1015. The urine sodium was 210 mEq/l. He did not have an elevated level of antidiuretic hormone. Electroencephalograms showed periodic delta waves over a background of theta waves. With sodium replacement, the patient become alert and symptom free, and his electroencephalographic findings normalized. However, the serum sodium level did not stabilize, sometimes falling with a recurrence of symptoms. magnetic resonance imaging clearly delineated a dumbbell-shaped intrasellar and suprasellar cyst. The suprasellar component subsequently shrunk spontaneously and finally disappeared. An endocrinologic evaluation showed panhypopituitarism. The patient was given glucocorticoid and thyroxine replacement therapy, which stabilized his serum sodium level and permanently relieved his symptoms. A transsphenoidal approach was performed. A greenish cyst was punctured, and a yellow fluid was aspirated. The cyst proved to be simple or cubic stratified epithelium, and a diagnosis of Rathke's cleft cyst was made. The patient was discharged in good condition with a continuation of hormonal therapy. Rathke's cleft cyst can cause aseptic meningitis if the cyst ruptures and its contents spill into the subarachnoid space. Metabolic encephalopathy induced by hyponatremia due to salt wasting also can occur if the lesion injures the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
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4/18. Diagnostic value of immunocytochemistry in leptomeningeal tumor dissemination.

    Differentiating chronic aseptic meningitis from leptomeningeal carcinomatosis or gliomatosis can be difficult, particularly when the differentiation is based solely on routine cytologic examination. The diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid tumor dissemination in at-risk patients requires cytologic examination of cerebrospinal fluid and radiography of the leptomeninges. Routine cytologic examination alone has proven less than desirable, in most instances providing confirmation in as little as 50% of cases in the first lumbar puncture. This percentage increases to 85% to 90% after multiple lumbar punctures. We retrospectively reviewed 2 cases of leptomeningeal dissemination (one gliomatosis, the other carcinomatosis) with initial false-negative test results. However, after further examination of the cerebrospinal fluid by selected battery of immunocytochemical stains, both cases were identified as positive for malignancy (ie, false negatives). Immunocytochemistry can be useful in distinguishing chronic aseptic meningitis from leptomeningeal carcinomatosis or gliomatosis in patients at risk or when abnormal cells are seen on routine cerebrospinal fluid cytologic examination.
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5/18. Acute sterile meningitis as a primary manifestation of pituitary apoplexy.

    pituitary apoplexy is a rare and underdiagnosed clinical syndrome. It results from hemorrhagic infarction of the pituitary gland. In its classical form it is characterized by acute headache, ophthalmoplegia, visual loss and pituitary insufficiency. Meningeal irritation signs, clinically indistinguishable from infectious meningitis, are considered rare and have not been reported as presenting signs. We report a 53-yr-old man who was admitted to hospital following acute headache, fever, neck stiffness and paresis of the left oculomotor and abducent nerves. A lumbar puncture revealed an increased number of polymorphs but with a sterile cerebral spinal fluid. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an intrasellar mass with central necrosis in an enlarged sella. Endocrinological evaluation demonstrated insufficient thyroid, adrenocortical, and gonadal function. necrosis within a chromophobe adenoma was found upon surgical decompression of the sella. After surgery anterior panhypopituitarism did not recover, while ophthalmoplegia subsided. The patient is now in good health under appropriate hormonal replacement therapy.
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6/18. Recurrent ibuprofen-induced aseptic meningitis.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of recurrent aseptic meningitis temporally associated with the use of ibuprofen. CASE SUMMARY: A previously well 51-year-old white man presented with acute confusion and aphasia 7 days after taking a variety of nonprescription medications, including ibuprofen. Imaging of the brain was unremarkable, and lumbar puncture revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis with an elevated protein level. The symptoms improved shortly after admission, and no infectious cause was identified. Two weeks later, the patient was readmitted with similar symptoms beginning immediately after resumption of ibuprofen. His symptoms resolved promptly after ibuprofen was discontinued. DISCUSSION: Drug-induced aseptic meningitis is an unusual complication of drug therapy. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly ibuprofen, are among the most commonly implicated agents, but rechallenge with the suspected agent is uncommon. Use of an objective causality tool indicated a probable relationship between ibuprofen and development of aseptic meningitis in our patient. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should consider NSAIDs as potential causes of aseptic meningitis, especially in patients with recurrent illness and no obvious infectious cause. A detailed drug history is invaluable in the assessment of such patients, with particular attention to nonprescription medications such as ibuprofen.
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7/18. Cognitive decline with chronic meningitis secondary to a COX-2 inhibitor.

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are currently being investigated as agents to reduce the incidence and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Paradoxically they have also been reported to induce deleterious effects on the central nervous system, including aseptic meningitis and cognitive decline in the elderly. We report a case of a 72-year-old woman who presented with a 6-week history of profound confusion whilst being treated with rofecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor. Lumbar puncture demonstrated a lymphocytic pleocytosis with increased protein and normal glucose. Complete clinical remission occurred 5 days after the rofecoxib was ceased with no other cause found despite extensive investigation. This case illustrates that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including the new COX-2 inhibitors, can produce chronic lymphocytic meningitis, which may manifest as cognitive decline. This mechanism may account for other case reports and epidemiological evidence of the association between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and confusion.
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8/18. Benign recurrent lymphocytic meningitis from herpes simplex virus type 2 during a summer outbreak of aseptic meningitis.

    meningitis from herpes simplex virus (HSV) may have a clinical presentation similar to other forms of viral meningitis. However, subtle facets of the history and use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can differentiate HSV from other etiologies. During an outbreak of meningitis from enterovirus, a 32-year-old woman presented to the hospital with clinical meningitis, a history of genital HSV infection, and two previous bouts of viral meningitis. Her signs and symptoms as well as lumbar puncture results were similar to patients meeting our case definition for patients with presumed enteroviral meningitis. The cerebral spinal fluid was positive for HSV by PCR, and she was ultimately diagnosed with recurrent meningitis from HSV. We compared her presentation with patients who met our case definition for enteroviral meningitis. A thorough history and use of PCR may assist in differentiating these clinically similar presentations.
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9/18. Possible trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-induced aseptic meningitis.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX)-induced aseptic meningitis. CASE SUMMARY: An 18-year-old woman diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia was admitted for a bone marrow transplant. She had already attained remission with daunorubicin, thioguanine, and high-dose cytarabine. A routine lumbar puncture performed on admission revealed an abnormally elevated leukocyte count, and meningitis was suspected. The patient had been taking TMP/SMX (trimethoprim 120 mg) twice daily on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday for the past 3 months; no other medication was being used. Upon examination, the patient mentioned having had headaches for the past few weeks. Since viral, bacterial, and fungal cultures were negative, a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis was made. According to the Naranjo probability scale, TMP/SMX was a possible cause of the aseptic meningitis. Eleven days after discontinuation of TMP/SMX, lumbar puncture results had returned to normal. DISCUSSION: Many drugs have been associated with aseptic meningitis. Antibiotics are often linked with aseptic meningitis, with TMP/SMX being the most frequently associated antibiotic. Many cases of TMP/SMX-induced aseptic meningitis have been reported, while few cases have been reported with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole given separately. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the widespread use of TMP/SMX and the years of experience we have had with the drug, it is important to remain vigilant regarding possible adverse effects, particularly aseptic meningitis.
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10/18. Aseptic meningitis after intrathecal baclofen injection.

    StUDY DESIGN: Two case reports of aseptic meningitis after intrathecal baclofen injection. OBJECTIVES: To report an unusual complication of intrathecal baclofen injection during test injections. SETTING: Department of Neurological rehabilitation, R Poincare Hopital (paris-Ile de france-Ouest University). case reports: We present two cases of chemical meningitis after intrathecal baclofen injections by lumbar puncture. These cases presented with febrile meningeal syndromes during the 24 h following intrathecal baclofen injection. Direct cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and CSF cultures were negative. An intense cellular reaction was observed with a marked predominance of neutrophils. meningitis resolved spontaneously over 3-4 days. CONCLUSIONS: Chemical meningitis is a rare complication of intrathecal baclofen injections that must be recognized. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and its pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear.
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