Cases reported "Meningitis, Bacterial"

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1/28. Recurrent subdural haematoma as the primary and sole manifestation of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    An 81-year-old man with a recurrent subdural haematoma as the first and only manifestation of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is described. Microscopic examination of the encapsulated haematoma showed leukaemic infiltration and the diagnosis was confirmed by bone marrow aspiration and by pathological examination of the brain at autopsy.
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2/28. Congenital malformation of the inner ear associated with recurrent meningitis.

    Congenital deformities of the labyrinth of the inner ear can be associated with meningitis and varying degrees of hearing loss or deafness. A recurrence of meningitis is due to the development of a fistulous communication between the subarachnoid space and the middle ear cavity, and can prove lethal. An illustrative case of a 4-year-old Japanese girl with bilateral severe hearing loss, recurrent meningitis and malformations of the inner ear and stapes footplate is presented. Removal of the stapes during tympanotomy provoked a gush of cerebrospinal fluid. The defect was repaired successfully, and there has been no further episodes of meningitis to date.
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3/28. Non-typhoid salmonella meningitis complicated by a infarction of basal ganglia.

    A previously healthy 16-month-old Korean girl with symptoms of fever, vomiting, and generalized tonic seizure was diagnosed to have Group D non-typhoid salmonella meningitis. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day) and amikin (22.5 mg/kg/day) initially and ciprofloxacin (30 mg/kg/day) was added later because of clinical deterioration and disseminated intravascular coagulation. brain CT performed on the second day showed a well-demarcated low density lesion in the right lentiform nucleus and both caudate nuclei, without evidence of increased intracranial pressure. MRI performed on the 11th day confirmed CT scan findings as well as right subdural fluid collection, brain atrophy, and ventriculomegaly. She underwent subdural drainage and later ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation. Despite receiving intensive treatment, she still has severe neurologic sequelae. Our case shows that infarctions of basal ganglia and thalami are not specific for tuberculous meningitis and that meningitis complicated by infarction is indicative of grave prognosis.
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4/28. adult citrobacter freundii meningitis: case report.

    Citrobacter is a distinct group of Gram-negative bacilli belonging to the enterobacteriaceae family. central nervous system (CNS) infections due to Citrobacter are uncommon, though they occur more frequently in neonates and young children. In adults, Citrobacter meningitis is extremely unusual with only 6 cases reported in the literature before 1998. This rare CNS infection has been seen in patients with head trauma, following neurosurgical procedures, and in those who are immunocompromised. Of the patients in the 6 reported cases, only one developed multi-antibiotic resistant Citrobacter CNS infection. Adding to this small number of reported cases, we report an adult case of post-neurosurgical meningitis and subdural empyema caused by multi-antibiotic resistant citrobacter freundii and also review the literature related to this infection. Antimicrobial therapy with imipenem and third-generation cephalosporins failed to result in cerebrospinal fluid sterilization in our patient. Because of the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, multi-antibiotic resistant Citrobacter species have developed in this nosocomial CNS infection and now present a therapeutic challenge. Therefore, further clinical studies are needed to determine updated therapeutic modalities for treating this life-threatening infection.
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5/28. Subdural and intraventricular traumatic tension pneumocephalus: case report.

    Simple pneumocephalus most frequently arises as a complication of a head injury in which a compound basal skull fracture with tearing of the meninges allows entry of air into the cranial cavity. It can also follow a neurosurgical operation. Tension traumatic pneumocephalus with intraventricular extension is an extremely rare, potentially lethal condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of subdural and intraventricular accidental tension pneumocephalus occurring in a 26-year-old man as a result of skull fracture. This case is combined with rhinorrhea and meningitis that suggest some difficulties to treat. The operative procedure associated with medical treatment was performed and a good result was obtained.
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6/28. Impalement injuries involving the spinal canal.

    Two cases of impalement injury involving the spinal canal are presented. In the first patient septic bacteria were carried into the spinal canal along the track of the impaling rod. This patient died of sepsis. In the second patient a steel rod penetrated the patient's trunk on the right side, traversing his body obliquely, impaling the L1 vertebral body and coming to lie in the left retroperitoneal space. This injury was not complicated by infection and the patient recovered without any neurological deficit. The principles of managing these injuries and factors influencing their outcomes are discussed.
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7/28. Subdural empyema after tooth extraction in which capnocytophaga species was isolated.

    We describe a patient with meningitis and a subdural empyema arising from an infection after teeth extraction in which capnocytophaga species was detected. The patient was a 54-y-old man without any underlying diseases. A computerized tomography scan showed a subdural empyema 21 d after the extraction.
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8/28. Intracranial vasculitis and multiple abscesses in a pregnant woman.

    Cerebral vasculitis is an unusual disorder with many causes. Infectious causes of cerebral vasculitis are predominantly bacterial or viral in nature. Purulent bacterial vasculitis is most often a complication of severe bacterial meningitis. The patient is a 25-year-old African American female, 25 weeks pregnant, who presented to the neurology service after a consult and referral from an outside hospital. She had a 1-month history of right sixth nerve palsy. Initial workup included a negative lumber puncture and a noninfused magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three days later, the patient developed right-sided migraine headaches and right third nerve palsy. The angiogram revealed diffuse irregularity and narrowing of the petrous, cavernous, and supraclinoid portions of the internal carotid and right middle cerebral arteries. Shortly thereafter, an MRI examination revealed diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement and abscess and a right parietal subdural empyema. Infectious vasculitis secondary to purulent meningitis has a rapidly progressive course and presents with cranial nerve palsy with involvement of the cavernous sinus. Although the association of this disease with pregnancy has not been established, it should be recognized that the early imaging studies may be negative or discordant and follow-up imaging might be necessary.
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9/28. Subdural hematoma after cervical epidural steroid injection.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report is presented involving a subdural hematoma after cervical epidural steroid injection. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a previously unreported complication of cervical epidural steroid injection. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Cervical epidural steroid injection is a common procedure performed in the care of patients with spine-related complaints. Reports of complications are rare, and most of these are fairly benign. To the authors' knowledge, subdural hematoma has never been described as a complication of a cervical epidural steroid injection. methods: A patient underwent an uncomplicated cervical epidural steroid injection by an experienced anesthesiologist. She developed acute onset of axial pain followed by progressive quadriparesis within a matter of 8 hours. She was transferred from a local emergency room after a CT scan suggested posterior cord displacement consistent with an anterior spinal hematoma from C3 to C5. She was taken to the operating room for urgent decompression. Exploration revealed an anterior subdural hematoma that was evacuated followed by dural closure with a patch. RESULTS: After surgery the patient was initially quadriplegic but rapidly gained full function in the left upper and lower extremities. She was making steady progress with motor recovery on the right side when she developed acute meningitis about 8 days after surgery, and then she subsequently went into cardiopulmonary arrest. She was successfully resuscitated but remained critically ill with no evidence of encouraging neurologic function. Six days later she had a second cardiac arrest and could not be resuscitated. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to acknowledge that spinal hematomas can occur after cervical epidural steroid injection, as prompt recognition and treatment could improve the prognosis for recovery. The sequelae of a cervical subdural hematoma after epidural steroid injection remain potentially devastating.
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10/28. diffusion-weighted imaging in acute bacterial meningitis in infancy.

    Bacterial meningitis is frequently fatal or leads to severe neurological impairment. Complications such as vasculitis, resulting in infarcts, should be anticipated and dealt with promptly. Our aim was to demonstrate the complications of meningitis by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who deteriorated despite therapy. We studied 13 infants between the ages of 1 day and 32 months who presented with symptoms ranging from fever and vomiting to seizures, encephalopathy and coma due to bacterial meningitis, performing MRI, including DWI, 2-5 days after presentation. Multiple infarcts were found on DWI in 12 of the 13, most commonly in the frontal lobes (in 10). Global involvement was seen in four children, three of whom died; the fourth had a very poor outcome. In one case abnormalities on DWI were due to subdural empyemas. We diagnosed vasculitis in three of five patients studied with MRA. We think DWI an important part of an MRI study in infants with meningitis. Small cortical or deep white-matter infarcts due to septic vasculitis can lead to tissue damage not easily recognized on routine imaging and DWI can be used to confirm that extra-axial collections represent empyemas.
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