Cases reported "Meningitis"

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1/108. clostridium perfringens: a rare cause of postoperative spinal surgery meningitis.

    BACKGROUND: clostridium perfringens is a rare cause of central nervous system infections, particularly meningitis. The case of a 76-year-old man who developed fatal C. perfringens meningitis after routine decompressive laminectomy for spinal stenosis is described. CASE REPORT: Twelve days after surgery the patient presented with pain and serosangiunous drainage from the surgical incision site. A swab of the drainage revealed Gram-positive bacilli; MRI of the lumbosacral spine showed the appearance of air around the laminectomy site. The patient died within 6 hours of presentation. autopsy revealed acute cranial and spinal meningitis and choroid plexitis with organisms consistent with C. perfringens. CONCLUSION: No significant enteral pathology or source of endogenous infection was determined, suggesting postoperative wound contamination and meningeal seeding with this ubiquitous organism. Clostridial infection, although rare, should be considered in any patient with meningitis with a history of surgical intervention. survival with minimal neurological deficits was achieved in half of the previously reported cases.
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2/108. Metastatic adenocarcinoma masquerading as basal pontine tuberculoma.

    Tuberculous infection of the central nervous system is common in hong kong. A 39-year-old woman presented with isolated right sixth nerve palsy which was non-progressive for 10 months. Neuro-imaging revealed a right pontine lesion. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed lymphocytic meningitis with negative bacteriological and cytological studies. Empirical antituberculous drugs with initial corticosteroid resulted in improved CSF parameters. A diagnosis of cerebral tuberculoma complicated by meningitis was made. She subsequently deteriorated clinically and radiologically. Despite a number of clinical features which were atypical of leptomeningeal metastasis, adenosquamous carcinoma was found on biopsy. Her relatively indolent clinical course might be due to the initial corticosteroid treatment. This report illustrates the importance of early tissue diagnosis in uncertain cases of chronic lymphocytic meningitis.
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keywords = nervous system
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3/108. A magnetic resonance abnormality correlating with permeability of the blood-brain barrier in a child with chemical meningitis during central nervous system prophylaxis for acute leukemia.

    Chemical meningitis developed in a boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis. cerebrospinal fluid examination showed pleocytosis and a high protein level. There were no malignant cytological findings. Calculated permeability of albumin across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was more elevated than that of immunoglobulin or alfa2-macroglobulin. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement without any intracerebral lesion. Subsequent CNS prophylaxis was postponed. CSF findings and BBB permeability returned to normal, correlating well with the decrease of MRI abnormality.
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keywords = nervous system
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4/108. The treatment of meningitis in infants with co-trimoxazole administered parenterally.

    We found that co-trimoxazole had a good clinical and antibacterial effect when given parenterally to infants with infections of the central nervous system. We showed good concentrations in the serum and satisfactory penetrations into the cerebrospinal fluid. In one case, there was a side effect which may have been due to the sulpha or to the solvent. We think that at present the preparation should not be given to very premature babies or to babies with icterus, for the same reasons that we avoid using sulpha preparations in these conditions, but otherwise it may be of great use in difficult cases of meningitis caused by gram-negative bacteria in infancy.
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keywords = nervous system
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5/108. Pachymeningitis in microscopic polyangiitis (MPA): a case report and a review of central nervous system involvement in MPA.

    A case of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) with pachymeningitis is described. The patient had renal, skin, gallbladder and peripheral nervous system involvement, simultaneously with pachymeningitis. Necrotizing glomerulonephritis with crescent formation, and necrotizing small vessel vasculitis in the kidney and skin were confirmed by biopsy. A highly elevated titer of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) was observed. All of the clinical and laboratory abnormalities improved with high-dose pulse and conventional steroid therapy. The literature on central nervous system involvement in MPA and perinuclear-ANCA (p-ANCA)-related vasculitis is reviewed. This case serves to emphasize that pachymeningitis can occur as one of the features of MPA.
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keywords = nervous system
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6/108. P-ANCA-positive Wegener's granulomatosis presenting with hypertrophic pachymeningitis and multiple cranial neuropathies: case report and review of literature.

    An autopsy case of hypertrophic pachymeningitis and multiple cranial neuropathies is reported. A 53-year-old woman with paraplegia and various neurological signs which developed over a 2 year period was diagnosed as having an epidural mass with thickened dura mater extending from the lower cervical to the thoracic spinal cord. In addition, bilateral episcleritis, blephaloptosis, and blindness of the right eye with various cranial nerve deficits were found to be caused by the mass lesions involving the paranasal sinuses, orbit, and the cavernous sinus. Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA) was positive, but cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) was negative by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The partially removed epidural mass with hypertrophied dura mater and biopsy of the paranasal lesions showed chronic granulomatous inflammation with vasculitis. The remaining lesions resolved with steroid therapy with remarkable neurological improvement. The positive p-ANCA test, paranasal involvement, the report of a similar histopathological case and a review of the literature on granulomatous pachymeningitis suggest the presence of p-ANCA-positive Wegener's granulomatosis with central nervous system involvement characterized by hypertrophic pachymeningitis and/or multiple cranial neuropathies.
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7/108. veillonella parvula meningitis: case report and review of veillonella infections.

    veillonella parvula is a small, nonfermentative anaerobic gram-negative coccus that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina in humans. When isolated from clinical specimens, V. parvula is often regarded as a contaminant or commensal, but it has been implicated as a pathogen in infections of the sinuses, lungs, heart, bone, and central nervous system. meningitis, however, is extremely rare; to our knowledge, only 2 cases have been previously described in the literature. We report a case of V. parvula meningitis and review the literature on veillonella infections.
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keywords = nervous system
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8/108. Infection of central nervous system by motile enterococcus: first case report.

    A 66-year-old man with four indwelling ventriculoperitoneal shunts for multiloculated hydrocephalus from a complicated case of meningitis a year before developed shunt infection based on a syndrome of fever, drowsiness, and cerebrospinal fluid neutrophil pleocytosis in the background of repeated surgical manipulation to relieve successive shunt blockages. The cerebrospinal fluid culture, which yielded a motile enterococcus species, was believed to originate from the gut. This isolate was lost in storage and could not be characterized further. The patient improved with vancomycin and high-dose ampicillin therapy. He relapsed a month later with enterococcus gallinarum shunt infection, which responded to high-dose ampicillin and gentamicin therapy. This is probably the first case report of motile enterococcus infection of the central nervous system.
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keywords = nervous system
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9/108. Treatment of T-prolymphocytic leukemia with nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    AIM: T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare disease of the elderly characterized by a high white blood cell count and organomegaly, and is currently incurable. Our aim was to elicit graft-versus-leukemia reactions in a patient with T-PLL. methods: A 52-yr-old woman with refractory T-PLL underwent a nonmyeloablative regimen followed by allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (a "minitransplant") from her HLA-matched sibling. RESULTS: There was no treatment related toxicity other than neutropenia. Engraftment was successful. The patient experienced no graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at any time but, on day 84 after transplantation, had a relapse in the central nervous system. Despite infusion of donor lymphocytes and intralumbar chemotherapy, she died on day 157 of systemic disease. CONCLUSION: The reasons why treatment may have failed are discussed (nature of disease, disease progression, treatment schedule).
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keywords = nervous system
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10/108. Langerhans cell histiocytosis infiltration in cerebrospinal fluid: a case report.

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by a proliferation of histiocytic cells resembling the integumentary cells bearing the name of langerhans cells. LCH can be unifocal or multifocal, with one- or many-organ involvement. We present a case of LCH diagnosed in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with generalized lymphadenopathy and central nervous system involvement.
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