Cases reported "Meningitis"

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1/45. temporal bone fracture following blunt trauma caused by a flying fish.

    Blunt trauma to the temporal region can cause fracture of the skull base, loss of hearing, vestibular symptoms and otorrhoea. The most common causes of blunt trauma to the ear and surrounding area are motor vehicle accidents, violent encounters, and sports-related accidents. We present an obscure case of a man who was struck in the ear by a flying fish while wading in the sea with resulting temporal bone fracture, sudden deafness, vertigo, cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea, and pneumocephalus.
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ranking = 1
keywords = skull, fracture
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2/45. Subtotal petrosectomy in the treatment of cerebrospinal fluid fistulae of the lateral skull base.

    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulae almost invariably lead to meningitis, even in the absence of other clinically obvious sequelae of the fistula such as a CSF fluid leak. The only effective means of reducing the risk of meningitis is surgical closure of the fistula. If surgery is to be recommended to patients with CSF fistulae even if they are currently asymptomatic, the morbidity of the procedure must be a principal determinant of the chosen technique. Recovery after the extracranial approach to a CSF fistula is much more rapid than after an intracranial procedure. The extracranial route is also free of the long-term risk of epilepsy which accompanies a craniotomy. The principal disadvantage of the lateral extracranial approach, failure of treatment, has been largely eliminated following studies into the obliteration of simple bony cavities using free adipose grafts. This paper describes our use of the extracranial approach to closure of CSF fistulae of the lateral skull base.
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ranking = 2.3080917836224
keywords = skull
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3/45. Pediatric granulomatous cerebral amebiasis: a delayed diagnosis.

    We present four cases of cerebral amebae infection treated at our neurosurgical department. Patient 1 was a 12-year-old male with skin lesions of 2 years' progression involving the midface. He received a corticosteroid course, and, after that, he presented a right body hemiparesis. Patient 2 was a 5-year-old male, with a past surgical history of fibula fracture and osteomyelitis of 1-year evolution, associated with lesions of the surrounding skin that presented with partial seizures. Patient 3 was a 3-year-old female who presented with a stroke-like episode and with partial seizures. Patient 4 was a 6-year-old male who had ulcerative lesions in the face of 1-year evolution. After a corticosteroid course, he presented with right-body hemiparesis. All patients were human immunodeficiency virus-negative and died 1 month or less after surgery because of progressive evolution of the disease. Histopathology revealed granulomatous amebic encephalitis. All patients revealed infection from balamuthia mandrillaris (Leptomyxiidae). Treatment consisting of pentamidine, clarithromycin, fluconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine was ineffective. Although extremely uncommon, granulomatous amebic encephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions while nonspecific, associated granulomatous skin lesions support the diagnosis of amebiasis.
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ranking = 0.089730273879255
keywords = fracture
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4/45. Two occult skull base malformations causing recurrent meningitis in a child: a case report.

    Occult malformations of the skull base are rare anomalies, but can cause severe complications such as meningitis. Detailed skull base investigations for detecting cerebrospinal fluid fistulas or celes are often not initiated until after a history of recurrent meningitis. We present a child first seen at the age of 12 with recurrent episodes of bacterial meningitis since early childhood, requiring antibiotic prophylaxis for years. High-resolution computed tomography revealed a chronic sinusitis and a bony defect on the right olfactory groove, while magnetic resonance imaging and CT-cisternography indicated no cerebrospinal fluid fistula or cele at that time. Endonasal surgery for chronic sinusitis was performed with a confirmed bony defect on the right olfactory groove and an olfactory fibre without its sleeve-like dura prolongation running into an adjacent ethmoidal cell, necessitating that it be covered. In the absence of any antibiotics a new episode of meningitis occurred 5 years after surgery. CT-cisternography and magnetic resonance imaging were repeated, now indicating a transclival bony defect with a meningocele in its proximal part, most probably presenting a canalis basilaris medianus. Endonasal surgery confirmed this bony defect after adenoidectomy, and closure was accomplished. No further meningitis has been observed for 2 years. Congenital skull base defects may be difficult to detect, but sufficient surgical closure after their precise delineation is mandatory to prevent infectious endocranial complications. The presence of more than one developmental skull base defect should be considered during careful radiological skull base evaluation, which has to include the clivus in order not to overlook rare basilar malformations.
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ranking = 4.1545652105202
keywords = skull
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5/45. Chronic post-traumatic erosion of the skull base.

    Delayed post-traumatic erosion of the skull base is reported in three patients who presented as adults with cerebrospinal fluid fistulae and a history of recurrent meningitis. These skull defects were associated with herniation of the subarachnoid space into the diploe of the skull base, the paranasal sinuses and the orbit. This rare complication of head injury is assumed to have occurred as the result of a dural tear at the time of trauma. Its site probably determines whether a resulting meningocele widens the intradiploic space or broaches the cranial floor.
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ranking = 3.2313284970713
keywords = skull
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6/45. petrous bone fractures in children: risk of meningitis, and indication for early Cochlear implant?

    The case of a 5 year old boy who had a right petrous bone fracture with right CSF otorrhea and deafness is reported. This child presented, three years after the trauma, a right side otitis media, complicated by meningitis and pneumococcal sepsis, which might have as consequence a left side deafness. The bilateral deafness and the early possibility for cochlear ossification made us decide rapidly on a cochlear implant. Benjamin was then operated for a left side cochlear implant 40 days after contracting meningitis. Two months later, this boy was able to understand a speech without lip reading. Current concepts in the management of petrous bone fractures with CSF otorrhea are reviewed in this report. We also discussed prophylactic attitudes to adopt to reduce the risk of post temporal bone fracture meningitis.
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ranking = 0.62811191715478
keywords = fracture
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7/45. tinnitus in childhood.

    All of 1,420 children seen for clarification of a hearing disorder or to follow up for known difficulty in hearing were questioned as to whether they experienced tinnitus. The interview was carried out after a hearing test was conducted, which was based on play audiometry or normal pure-tone threshold audiometry, depending on the age of the child. When being interviewed, 102 children reported that tinnitus had appeared or was still present. Seventy-five children (73.5%) demonstrated difficulty in hearing in one or both ears, whereas 27 children (26.5%) had normal hearing in both ears. The most frequently obtained information (29.4%) was the progression of an existing hearing loss. meningitis is an important cause of hearing loss and of tinnitus and could be identified in 20% of our patients. We also considered as a cause of tinnitus skull or brain trauma, acute hearing loss, and stapes surgery. However, the mechanisms of tinnitus development were not immediately clear in a large proportion of the children studied: Problems included central sensory perception (14.7%) and emotional factors (11.8%). No additional information that might lead to an understanding of the hearing loss was available for 14.7% of the patients studied. tinnitus is a frequent symptom in childhood and, because children seldom complain about their tinnitus, such hearing problems that they report must always be taken seriously. The diagnosis should exclude metabolic disturbances, possible damage to the sensory level of the central nervous system, and circulatory disturbances. In addition, the physician should always consider emotional problems and disturbances of perception.
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ranking = 0.46161835672447
keywords = skull
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8/45. Hypertrophic chronic pachymeningitis associated with chronic otitis media and mastoiditis.

    We describe the case history of a 70-year-old female patient presenting with bilateral hearing disturbance, facial paralysis, and vertigo. Radiological tests of temporal bone revealed soft tissue in the mastoid and tympanic cavities, and T1 weighted MRI revealed prominent Gd enhancement of the middle skull basal meninges. Middle ear inflammation appeared to induce pachymeningitis and to exacerbate associated symptoms, leading to a decline in the patient's overall condition. Bilateral mastoidectomies were effective in improving her general condition. Her hearing improved only on the right side because ossiculoplasty was performed only on that side. Her facial movement progressively improved and pachymeningitis diminished over time. We speculate that removal of the infectious granulation within the middle ears and mastoids ameliorated the acute inflammation. The etiology remains unknown in this case.
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ranking = 0.46161835672447
keywords = skull
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9/45. pneumocephalus and presumed meningitis following inconspicuous penetrating periocular trauma.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of serious intracranial complications in an adolescent youth following a seemingly trivial periocular injury. methods: An adolescent youth was examined and discharged after a small penetrating injury to his left medial canthus. He later presented with blurred vision, nausea and mild pyrexia and underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan of the head and orbits as well as a lumbar puncture. RESULTS: The CT scan revealed a fracture in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and the medial orbital wall, as well as pneumocephalus. The lumbar puncture revealed 3000 white cells/mm3 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). After treatment with meningitic doses of intravenous antibiotics, a significant improvement was noted. CONCLUSIONS: A CT scan, instead of an ordinary head radiograph, may be considered as a first-choice mode of diagnosis in evaluating even inconspicuous penetrating periocular wounds. Early administration of meningitic doses of antibiotics may significantly improve prognosis.
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ranking = 0.089730273879255
keywords = fracture
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10/45. Traumatic prepontine tension pneumocephalus--case report.

    OBJECTIVE: A case of prepontine tension pneumocephalus after temporal bone fracture is presented. CASE REPORT: An 8-year-old girl suffered a head injury due to a fall off her bicycle. She lost her consciousness, and when she was admitted to the local hospital the Glasgow coma Score (GCS) was 8/15 (eye opening: 2; verbal answer: 2; motor response: 4) and there was bleeding from the right ear. The patient's condition deteriorated rapidly and she needed intubation and ventilation. CT of the brain revealed large amount of air in the prepontine region, displacing the brainstem posteriorly. Patient was kept ventilated, meanwhile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as otorrhea appeared on the right side. CT was repeated 36 hours later, showing significantly less air in the prepontine area. The patient was weaned off the respirator, extubated and the level of consciousness improved. Later the patient developed meningitis, which was treated by systemic antibiotics with lumbar CSF drainage applied for five days. A high resolution CT scan of the petrous bone revealed a fracture crossing the middle part of the pyramid. Patient showed a full recovery except a right-sided mixed hearing loss. CONCLUSION: Rapid neurological deterioration following head injury can be a consequence of tension pneumocephalus. Prepontine pneumocephalus can be caused by minor fracture of petrous bone. High resolution CT is necessary to visualize minor fracture of the petrous bone. Conservative treatment may be satisfactory to treat tension hydrocephalus.
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ranking = 0.35892109551702
keywords = fracture
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