Cases reported "Meningocele"

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1/93. Cutaneomeningospinal angiomatosis (Cobb syndrome) with tethered cord.

    A newborn presented with a skin-covered lumbar mass with a subcutaneous hemangioma and on a magnetic resonance image (MRI) revealed a tethered spinal cord with a local mass. The mass had signal characteristics compatible with a lipoma. An initial diagnosis of a lipomeningocele with tethered cord was made, and the patient underwent surgical exploration and subtotal resection of the mass. A follow-up MRI revealed that the cord was still tethered, but an additional mass was present. The initial mass with signal characteristics of lipomatous tissue was accompanied by a low-signal mass in the lumbosacral canal, ventral to the cord, and bilateral enlargement of the foramina at the lumbosacral level. Because of a concern for an intraspinal tumor, a second operative intervention was performed. Multiple biopsies of the mass inside the spinal cord, the nerve roots and at the level of the foramina revealed angiomas that had similar pathology in all the specimens. A partial resection of the masses and a release of the tethered cord was performed by sectioning the thickened filum terminale. The diagnosis of Cobb's syndrome was made. The unique association of a tethered cord and the Cobb syndrome is reported here.
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2/93. Transnasal endoscopic repair of congenital defects of the skull base in children.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine imaging findings and methods of endoscopic treatment of congenital skull base defects in children. DESIGN: Retrospective study and case series. SETTING: Academic tertiary care center. patients: Four patients (aged 12 and 14 months and 8 and 13 years) were included from 1995 to 1997. Three presented with a nasal glioma, which was recurrent in 1 case. The fourth patient presented with bacterial meningitis due to a spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to locate the defect of the skull base. INTERVENTION: Transnasal endoscopic resection of the glioma or the meningocele, with immediate repair of the skull base defects using free mucosal flaps and/or pediculized mucosal flaps and/or conchal cartilage together with fibrin glue and nasal packing during a 3-week period. RESULTS: None of the 4 patients has experienced recurrent cerebrospinal fluid leaks or postoperative meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: The transnasal endoscopic repair of congenital meningoceles is a reliable technique in select pediatric patients. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide information that can be used to help the surgical procedure.
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3/93. Anterior sacral meningocele completely occupied by an epidermoid tumor.

    A 2-year-old girl presented with an anterior sacral meningocele completely occupied by an epidermoid tumor. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging had shown the meningocele with contents of the same intensity as cerebrospinal fluid. Surgery via a posterior sacral approach disclosed the tumor beneath an unexpected membrane inside the meningocele. Additionally, the presence of pus inside epidermoid tumor suggested that possible episodes of asymptomatic meningitis or other infection might have occurred before treatment, these being the major complication in anterior sacral meningocele. Therefore, we recommend that surgical treatment should be performed at the earliest possible stage in childhood, once the diagnosis is established, and dural plasty carried out to prevent infectious complications.
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4/93. Meningoencephalic herniation into the middle ear.

    Meningoencephalic herniation into the middle ear (MHME) is a rare condition. It can result from ear surgery, infection, head trauma or can be spontaneous. diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. The presentation may suggest the condition, but sometimes the intraoperative discovery of an occult meningoencephalic herniation may be a frightening situation. Treatment planning must avoid intra-cranial complications. Transmastoid (TM) and middle cranial fossa (MCF) are alternative or complementary approaches, determined by several factors, including the size and the site of the bony defect and the presence or absence of middle ear infection. Three case reports are presented and a review of the literature is performed, to explain some aspects related to MHME, including aetiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, histopathology, diagnosis and treatment.
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5/93. Confirmation of arterial deficiencies in a limb with necrosis following clubfoot surgery.

    This study describes postoperative necrosis of the hallux and first ray in a child with clubfoot. Arteriography performed on this child's lower limbs demonstrated, in the operated leg, hypoplasia of both the anterior and posterior tibial arteries and failure of the dorsalis pedis artery to traverse the tarsus and complete the deep plantar arch. Previously, congenital vascular deficiency was suggested to predispose such operated limbs to necrosis. These findings confirm the association between vascular deficiency and necrosis. In this present study, the metabolic demands of wound healing were sufficient in a limb with vascular deficiency to cause localized distal hypoperfusion leading to cyanosis and necrosis of the hallux and medial foot.
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6/93. Cephaloceles and abnormal venous drainage.

    Seven cases of parietal cephalocele and three cases of occipital cephalocele associated with abnormal venous drainage were evaluated, and the mechanism of the development for venous system was discussed from the embryological viewpoint. In parietal cephaloceles the abnormally draining vein, which corresponds to the straight sinus, ascended along the interhemisphere apart from the tentorium and emptied into the superior sagittal sinus below the cephalocele. The superior sagittal sinus formed the confluence, which was positioned high up. Intraoperative findings revealed that cephalocele penetrated the superior sagittal sinus at the midline. In the case of occipital cephalocele, the straight sinus followed a postero-superior course, to drain into the confluence just above the neck of cephalocele. The results of our study suggest that the causation of abnormal venous drainage in the great vein of Galen, the straight sinus and the superior sagittal sinus may be secondary, through interaction with a developmentally pre-existing cephalocele.
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7/93. spinal cord herniation into an extensive extradural meningeal cyst: postoperative analysis of intracystic flow by phase-contrast cine MRI.

    We report a patient with idiopathic spinal cord herniation who underwent postoperative myelography and phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to clarify the condition of the ventral cystic lesion into which the spinal cord had been herniated. This 58-year-old man showed symptoms and signs compatible with brown-sequard syndrome. A myelogram and MRI showed that the spinal cord was incarcerated in a small space, and this finding led to the diagnosis of spinal cord herniation. In the operation, the herniated spinal cord was returned to the initial intradural space, and the dural defect was enlarged to prevent recurrence of the herniation. After the operation, leg muscle strength improved and bladder and bowel dysfunction resolved, but analgesia was unchanged. Postoperative myelography revealed a very large extradural cystic lesion, which extended from C2 to L1 vertebral level. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow study of the intradural space disclosed a near-normal pattern, but the intracystic CSF dynamics were abnormal. In the intracystic space at just the upper level of the lesion, cranial flow (reverse directional flow in comparison with the intradural flow) was seen in the systolic cycle after momentary fast caudal flow, and these CSF dynamics may have been related to the spinal cord herniation.
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ranking = 6
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8/93. Giant intraspinal pseudomeningoceles cause delayed neurological dysfunction after brachial plexus injury: report of three cases.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Delayed neurological dysfunction after a brachial plexus injury is uncommon. We present the cases of three patients with a history of significant brachial plexus trauma and late neurological deterioration secondary to giant intraspinal extradural pseudomeningoceles. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Three patients, each with a remote history of brachial plexus trauma, presented with slowly progressive upper-limb weakness. An examination revealed bilateral lower motor neuron weakness in the upper extremities in all patients and evidence of spastic paraparesis in one. magnetic resonance imaging and postmyelogram computed tomographic scans demonstrated large anterior extradural cerebrospinal fluid collections extending from the upper cervical to lower thoracic and lumbar levels in each patient. Myelograms demonstrated a connection with the subarachnoid space in two patients. INTERVENTION: Direct obliteration of the connection between the cyst and the subarachnoid space was completed in two patients, and a cystoperitoneal shunt was placed in the third. Postoperative imaging demonstrated complete resolution of the extradural collections. Arrest of progression of upper-limb deterioration was observed in all patients, and dramatic improvement of long tract symptoms occurred in one. CONCLUSION: Giant intraspinal pseudomeningoceles are a rare complication of brachial plexus root injuries or avulsion, capable of causing significant morbidity. Early intervention can improve symptoms related to long tract involvement and prevent further deterioration of lower motor neuron disease. The pathophysiology of neurological dysfunction caused by these giant collections is unclear; however, vascular and mechanical factors thought to be important in the pathogenesis of cervical myelopathy also may have a role.
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9/93. Diagnostic steps and staged operative approach in Currarino's triad: a case report and review of the literature.

    The Currarino triad is a combination of a presacral mass, a congenital sacral bony abnormality and an anorectal malformation. It mostly presents with constipation. Rectal examination, plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging are the main tools for the diagnosis. If the mass is a meningocele, colostomy and neurosurgical exploration should precede anoplasty due to the risk of meningitis. A 14-month-old female patient with anal stenosis, a sacral scimitar defect and an anterior meningocele is presented in this report.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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10/93. Atretic cephalocele: contribution of magnetic resonance imaging in preoperative diagnosis.

    We describe a case of parietal cephalocele. MRI and MR venography were useful for accurate anatomical depiction. We speculate on developmental pathogenesis in the context of the literature available.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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