Cases reported "Meningoencephalitis"

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1/10. anthrax meningitis. Report of two cases with autopsies.

    The authors report two cases of occupation-related anthrax meningitis; one was direct contamination from a diseased animal; the second was due to handling of bone powder imported from india. The pathological pattern of involvement of the meninges and brain is described and discussed.
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2/10. meningoencephalitis in brucellosis.

    Human brucellosis, more specifically neurobrucellosis, is a less commonly reported disease in india; although, animal brucellosis and seroprevalence in specific areas is well reported. We are reporting 4 cases of neurobrucellosis presenting as meningoencephalitis. diagnosis was confirmed by serological test and agglutination titre was > 1:320 in all the patients. All these patients had close contact with animals and history of raw milk ingestion was present in 3 cases. The aim of presenting these cases is to create awareness among physicians while treating meningitis in persons, engaged in occupations related to brucellosis or having a history of ingestion of raw milk or milk product.
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3/10. Aqueductal stenosis 9 years after mumps meningoencephalitis: treatment by endoscopic third ventriculostomy.

    INTRODUCTION: hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis following mumps meningoencephalitis is a rare condition, reported only in 16 cases in the literature. The pathogenetic role of the mumps virus in inducing aqueductal stenosis has been demonstrated experimentally in animal models and clinically proven in a few cases. Although obstructive in nature, the post-infectious etiology raises the question as to whether third ventriculostomy is the appropriate treatment. PATIENT: We report a case of hydrocephalus due to pure aqueductal stenosis occurring in an 11-year-old boy who suffered from mumps meningoencephalitis 9 years previously. The boy was successfully treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy. CONCLUSIONS: The present case offers further evidence of the purely obstructive nature of the hydrocephalus induced by paramyxovirus meningoencephalitis, even if it did occur several years after the infectious disease. The pathogenesis of mumps-induced hydrocephalus and the rationale of treatment are discussed, and the literature is reviewed.
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4/10. Acute brucella meningomyeloencephalo-spondylosis in a teenage male.

    BACKGROUND: brucellosis has been known from the time of Hippocrates. In 1885 Sir David Bruce isolated the causative organism from the spleens of soldiers who had died from "malta disease" (now brucellosis). There are 4 species of brucella pathogenic to humans and each of them has a specific types of animal reservoir: B.arbotus (cattle, buffalo), B.melitensis (goats, sheep, camels), B.suis (pigs), B.canis (dogs). humans are infected when they are exposed to body fluids from an infected animal. The symptoms and signs of brucellosis are protean. diagnosis is usually dependent on clinical features and serology or culture. OBJECTIVES: To describe a case of neurobrucellosis, raise awareness about the existence of the disease in uganda and africa in general and share our experiences in its diagnosis and management. methods: A male teenager was admitted with symptoms and signs of an acute meningo-encephalitis. He underwent clinical, laboratory and basic radiological evaluation. RESULTS: The un-incubated brucella titer was significantly reactive(1:160).Oblique-view cervical x-rays showed early osteophyte formation with encroachment on the vertebral foramina on the left hand side. A diagnosis of acute brucella meningomyeloencephalo-spondylosis was made and the patient was successfully treated using conventional therapy for brucellosis (oral doxycycline for 6weeks and IM streptomycin for 2 weeks). CONCLUSIONS: Neurobrucellosis though said to be rare, is a reality in our health units should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The good news is that it is curable and is responsive to drugs used for other forms of brucellosis.
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5/10. Leptomyxid ameba, a new agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and animals.

    Amebae belonging to the order Leptomyxida are regarded as innocuous soil organisms incapable of infecting mammals. We report here the isolation of a leptomyxid ameba from the brain of a pregnant baboon (papio sphinx) that died of meningoencephalitis at the San Diego Zoo Wild Animal Park. By using rabbit anti-leptomyxid serum in the immunofluorescence assay, we have identified the leptomyxid ameba in the brain sections of a number of human encephalitic cases from around the world as well as a few cases of meningoencephalitis in animals in the united states, which suggests that the leptomyxid amebae are potential etiologic agents of fatal meningoencephalitis in humans and animals.
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6/10. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis.

    As a serendipitous by-product of polio virus research, a highly fatal amoebic meningoencephalitis was recognized in animals. The causative microorganisms, contaminants of the viral cultures, were identified as small soil amoebae. These organisms, previously considered non-pathogenic, are prevalent throughout the world. Based on animal studies, the original investigators suggested the possibility of a similar disease in humans. Seven years later, human cases of amoebic meningoencephalitis were reported from widely separated areas of the world. Since 1965, a total of 79 cases have been reported. The literature of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is presented. The history of the discovery and elucidation of this disease is reviewed. The 79 cases reported in the world literature are divided into two groups, those diagnosed retrospectively after reviewing previous deaths from meningoencephalitis, and those diagnosed at the time of the illness. The classification, morphology, pathogenicity, virulence and distribution of pathogenic soil amoebae are reviewed. The presenting clinical findings, diagnostic procedures, pathology, and management of this recently recognized, highly fatal, human disease is presented along with a report of a new case. Otolaryngologists should become familiar with this serious disorder with a transnasal portal of entry.
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7/10. A case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in Zaria, nigeria.

    A case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to naegleria fowleri in a Nigerian child is described. This is probably the first authentic case from West africa. The clinical manifestations, isolation of the ameba from the cerebrospinal fluid and nasal passages, poor response to amphotericin b, and ultimate fatal outcome all are consistent with the diagnosis of primary amebic meningoencephalitis. Subsequent identification based on morphologic features, flagellation, animal pathogenicity, and nuclear division proved conclusively that the ameba was naegleria fowleri. The route of entry of the ameba proved to be nasal. In the absence of the history of swimming and in view of the dusty harmattan period during which the child was admitted, a possibility of infection by inhalation of dust harboring amebic cysts is suggested.
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8/10. A case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in a Nigerian farmer.

    A fatal case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) in a 35-year-old Nigerian Muslim farmer is described. The disease was contracted during ritual washing before prayers, which involved the sniffing of water up his nose to clean it. The water came from a man-made pond at his farm. The clinical presentation, isolation of the ameba from the cerebrospinal fluid and nasal passages, poor response to amphotericin b, and ultimate fatal outcome prove this to be a case of PAME. On the basis of its ability to grow at 42 degrees C, morphology of the trophozoite, cyst, and flagellate forms, animal pathogenicity, and nuclear division the ameba was identified as naegleria fowleri. Pathogenic N. fowleri were recovered from samples of water and soil from the pond. This represents the fourth proven case of PAME from northern nigeria.
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9/10. An outbreak of anthrax meningoencephalitis.

    We report a common-source outbreak of anthrax meningoencephalitis in Chittoor district in Andhra Pradesh, southern india, in October 1990. The source of infection was the carcass of a sheep. Of 5 persons who skinned and cut up its meat for human consumption, 4 developed anthrax meningoencephalitis and one a malignant pustule. Another person who wrapped the meat in a cloth and carried it home on his head developed a malignant pustule on his forehead and also meningoencephalitis. All subjects with anthrax meningoencephalitis died, but the one with only a malignant pustule recovered. A large number of people who cooked or ate the cooked meat of the dead sheep remained well. The medical, public health and veterinary authorities were alerted and sheep, goats and cattle in the locality were immunized with anthrax vaccine. Although rules against consumption of meat of dead animals exist, their violation shows a lack of public awareness. health education should be undertaken to correct this situation.
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10/10. Diagnostic ultrastructure of listeria monocytogenes in human central nervous tissue.

    The pathogenesis of listeria monocytogenes infection of the human central nervous system is poorly understood and ultrastructural aspects are not documented. A case of fatal human L. monocytogenes meningoencephalitis is described, in which diagnosis was confirmed by blood culture and in which special staining (Brown's) showed slender gram-positive bacilli in inflamed areas of the brainstem at autopsy. Electron microscopy of blocks rescued from formalin revealed rods, up to 2.5 microns long x 0.4 microns in diameter, with gram-positive type cell walls and distinctive conic ends, the latter being apparent in axial section only. The organism was either free within the cytoplasm or within endosomes or phagosomes of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. In one instance, one was seen adhering to the luminal aspect of the vascular endothelium. central nervous system parenchymal cell infection was suspected but not confirmed. Intra-cytoplasmic bacteria were surrounded by an electron-transparent halo and, beyond that, a cloud of host-derived microfilaments, as previously described by others in vitro and in animals. The morphology of L. monocytogenes is compared with that of other intracellular pathogens and is found to be distinctive, suggesting the value of ultrastructural study in diagnosis. Such work could also help to solve outstanding pathogenetic questions of central nervous system invasion and spread.
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