Cases reported "Meningoencephalitis"

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1/50. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to naegleria fowleri: an autopsy case in japan.

    Free-living amebas represented by naegleria fowleri, acanthamoeba and Balamutia have been known to cause fatal meningoencephalitis since Fowler and Carter (1965) reported the first four human cases. An autopsy case of a 25-year-old female with primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) due to naegleria fowleri is described. headache, lethargy and coma developed in this patient, and her condition progressed to death 8 days after the onset of clinical symptoms. Cerebral spinal fluid examination confirmed clusters of amebas, which were grown in culture and identified as naegleria fowleri. At autopsy, lesions were seen in the central nervous system (CNS) and the ethmoid sinus. The CNS had severe, suppurative meningoencephalitis with amebic trophozoites mingled with macrophages. This case is the first report of PAM due to naegleria fowleri in japan.
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2/50. Neurological symptoms in patients whose cerebrospinal fluid is culture- and/or polymerase chain reaction-positive for mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    We describe 13 patients with neurological signs and symptoms associated with mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. M. pneumoniae was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 9 patients: 5 with meningoencephalitis, 2 with meningitis, and 1 with cerebrovascular infarction. One patient had headache and difficulties with concentration and thinking for 1 month after the acute infection. M. pneumoniae was detected, by means of PCR, in the CSF of 4 patients with negative culture results. Two had epileptic seizures, 1 had blurred vision as a consequence of edema of the optic disk, and 1 had peripheral nerve neuropathy.
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3/50. PCR in meningoencephalitis diagnosis.

    polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of a stretch of nucleic acid sequence of microbial origin from a clinical sample is not always diagnostic of disease unless the identified agent is a strict pathogen or its growth is documented. We describe here a case of acute meningoencephalitis in a 21-y-old man, in whom no pathogen was isolated by traditional bacterial or viral culture. Standard dna PCR performed on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) identified the presence of 3 infectious agents: HHV-6, HHV-7 and mycoplasma pneumoniae. Additional PCRs performed on CSF fractions along with gene transcript analysis proved the bystander role of the 2 herpesviruses and indicated M. pneumoniae as the relevant replicating agent, most likely playing to be a pathogenic role. Until this useful analysis becomes routine, clinicians should deal carefully with dna PCR results, especially when assessing the aetiological role of agents, such as herpesviruses, which are known to undergo latency.
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4/50. Granulocyte transfusion as a treatment for enterococcal meningoencephalitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an unrelated donor.

    Bacterial meningoencephalitis occurring in the pre-engraftment period after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a rare complication, and the feasibility of granulocyte transfusion (GTX) in such cases remains to be elucidated. A 37-year-old man developed enterococcal meningoencephalitis during a severely granulocytopenic pre-engraftment period after BMT. Despite therapy with appropriate antibiotics, cultures of blood and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) continued to grow enterococcus faecalis, and he developed rapid mental deterioration and seizure. granulocytes were collected from his HLA-mismatched, ABO-matched sibling with subcutaneous injection of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and oral dexamethazone. Transfusion of 4.4 x 10(10) granulocytes resulted in a 12-h post-transfusion granulocyte increment of 2.0 x 10(9)/l, and maintained peripheral blood granulocyte counts above 0.5 x 10(9)/l for 3 days. A rapid increase of granulocytes in CSF was also observed, and cultures of blood and CSF became negative after GTX. A transient worsening of seizure was observed as a potential side effect of GTX. The patient subsequently developed septic shock because of pseudomonas aeruginosa and died. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of GTX for the treatment of uncontrolled infections in granulocytopenic stem cell transplant recipients.
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5/50. A case of mycoplasma hominis meningo-encephalitis in a full-term infant: rapid recovery after start of treatment with ciprofloxacin.

    The role of Mycoplasma hominisas a causative agent for neonatal sepsis and meningitis is still unclear. meningitis secondary to M. hominisis well-described in the literature; however, M. hominiscan also be isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from infants without signs of meningitis. We present a case of a full-term infant with meningo-encephalitis with seizures, epileptic activity on the EEG, inflammation of brain tissue on a CT scan, and cloudy CSF containing elevated cell counts, decreased glucose levels and elevated protein levels. M. hominiswas identified from the CSF by culture and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the only possible causative agent. Furthermore, while empiric antibiotic and antiviral treatment for neonatal sepsis had failed, the meningo-encephalitis promptly responded upon antibiotic treatment with ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg per day i.v.), to which M. hominisis susceptible. CONCLUSION: A meningo-encephalitis developed due to infection with M. hominisin a full-term infant, from which he recovered rapidly after start of treatment with ciprofloxacin.
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6/50. December 2002: 19-year old male with febrile illness after jet ski accident.

    The December 2002 COM. A 19-year-old healthy male fell into stagnant water of the intercostal waterway (salt water of South florida), following a jet ski accident. He sustained minor superficial injuries but engulfed significant quantities of water and sediment. A few days later he developed bifrontal headaches, vomiting, a stiff neck and a temperature of 102 degrees F. A CT scan on admission without contrast was negative. The CSF had markedly elevated white count but bacterial and fungal cultures were negative. He became progressively lethargic. On the fifth day he developed seizure activity. He expired the next day despite antibiotics. Gross examination of the brain at autopsy revealed edema, cerebellar tonsillar herniation and purulent meningitis. Microscopic examination revealed a massive leptomeningeal inflammatory infiltrate composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and numerous histiocyte-like cells. The inflammatory infiltrate extended into the cerebral parenchyma in numerous areas also involving the cerebellum, brainstem and ventricular system. Given the exposure to stagnant water (later confirmed to be a man-made fresh water lake), and the numerous histiocytic-like cells, suspicion for an amebic etiology of the disease process was raised and the CDC identified the ameba as naegleria fowleri. infection by naegleria fowleri, a free-living ameba, occurs after exposure to polluted water in man-made fresh water lakes, ponds, swimming pools, particularly during the warm weather months when the thermophilic ameba grows well. The pathologic substrate of the infection is an acute hemorrhagic, necrotizing meningo-encephalitis mainly at the base of the brain, brainstem and cerebellum occurring in young, healthy individuals.
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7/50. Neurobrucellosis presenting as leukoencephalopathy: the role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    A 65-year-old man developed a leukoencephalopathy associated with neurobrucellosis. The disease followed a 15-month progressive course with neurologic symptoms, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral symmetrical T2 signal hyperintensities in the white matter. biopsy of the cerebral cortex and white matter was significant for nongranulomatous meningoencephalitis with reactive microgliosis and astrogliosis. The inflammatory infiltrate was predominantly composed of T lymphocytes, including numerous cytotoxic T cells. There was no evidence of significant myelin destruction. No organisms were detected microscopically, but elevated immunoglobulin g titers to Brucella were found in the cerebrospinal fluid. An abscess formed at the biopsy site, and brucella melitensis was cultured from abscess contents. Neurobrucellosis is difficult to diagnose outside endemic regions and is associated with leukoencephalopathy-like pathology. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and microglia activation play an immunopathogenic role in this rare disease.
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8/50. ganciclovir treatment of cytomegalovirus ventriculitis in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Histopathologic evidence of central nervous system involvement with cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been well recognized in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). However, clinically symptomatic disease has been decidedly less common. In this report, we describe a patient infected with hiv who developed an acute change in neurological status. gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid revealed CMV ventriculitis and meningoencephalitis. Treatment with ganciclovir resulted in radiological improvement of the ventriculitis and negative CMV cultures but little clinical neurological improvement.
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9/50. culture isolation of acanthamoeba species and leptomyxid amebas from patients with amebic meningoencephalitis, including two patients with AIDS.

    acanthamoeba species and leptomyxid organisms are free-living amebas that cause meningoencephalitis, primarily in immunocompromised patients. We report the isolation and culture of acanthamoeba species and leptomyxid amebas from four patients with fatal amebic meningoencephalitis. acanthamoeba species were cultured from brain abscess specimens from three immunocompromised patients (including two patients with AIDS). In the case of the fourth patient, who had no identifiable immunodeficiency, leptomyxid amebas were cultured from a specimen from a subcutaneous nodule and were identified in amebic granulomas in brain tissue by the indirect immunofluorescence test. persons with advanced infection due to the human immunodeficiency virus may be at increased risk for amebic meningoencephalitis, but the diagnosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any immunocompromised patient with cerebral abscesses.
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10/50. Fatal fulminant pan-meningo-polioencephalitis due to west nile virus.

    We report a case of fatal fulminant west nile virus (WNV) meningoencephalitis in an 87-year-old white male gardener. The pennsylvania patient presented with a 3-day history of flu-like symptoms. His hospital course was gravely precipitous with onset of coma, ventilator dependence, loss of cortical and brainstem functions within ten days of admission. Acute serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples revealed elevated levels of WNV IgM antibodies by ELISA as well as elevated CSF white blood cells, protein and glucose. A complete autopsy revealed a multifocal lymphocytic myocarditis and severe chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis. Viral culture and PCR analysis of post-mortem samples of the spleen, kidney and brain were positive for WNV. Histological sections from all regions of the brain and spinal cord demonstrated a severe, non-necrotizing, subacute, polio-meningoencephalitis. While both gray and white matter were inflamed, gray matter was much more severely involved. Many gray matter nuclei showed severe neuronal loss with residual dying neurons surrounded by activated microglia. Immunohistochemical stains revealed profuse infiltration of the meninges and cerebral parenchyma by CD8 t-lymphocytes and perivascular b-lymphocytes. Electron micrographs revealed diffuse intracellular and extracellular edema but no viral particles were identified. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining for WNV filled the cytoplasm of residual neurons. west nile virus mediates a predominantly polioencephalitis secondary to direct infection of neurons.
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