Cases reported "Meningoencephalitis"

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11/427. Nonvasculitic autoimmune inflammatory meningoencephalitis (NAIM): a reversible form of encephalopathy.

    Five patients, age 54 to 80 years, presented between 3 weeks and 18 months after symptomatic onset of progressive cognitive decline, psychosis, and unsteady gait that proved to be due to a steroid-responsive nonvasculitic autoimmune inflammatory meningoencephalitic syndrome. CSF examination showed elevated immunoglobulin (Ig)G index and IgG synthesis rate in all three patients in whom it was checked, and brain biopsy revealed perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates without vessel wall invasion.
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ranking = 1
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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12/427. mycoplasma pneumoniae: a cause of coma in the absence of meningoencephalitis.

    mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis is a recognized cause of reversible coma in children. As an etiology of infectious encephalitis, it yields a relatively poorer prognosis than most other causes of infectious encephalopathies. Encephalitis is generally diagnosed by a constellation of clinical symptoms and confirmed by a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination revealing cell pleocytosis and elevated protein. That mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalopathy can occur in the presence of a normal CSF examination is less well appreciated. The authors report two children who presented with coma and normal CSF findings in whom a diagnosis of acute mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was made. The two children both had rapid and complete recovery over several days. These cases exemplify that coma can result from acute infection with mycoplasma pneumoniae in the absence of an inflammatory CSF response and that a normal CSF may herald a more favorable prognosis.
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ranking = 1.0012466074093
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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13/427. Idiopathic granulomatous meningoencephalitis presenting as an intracranial tumor.

    A 2-year-old girl presented with a single episode of generalized seizure. magnetic resonance imaging examination showed an intracranial mass with a diameter of 2.5 cm in the right parieto-occipital region of the cerebrum. These clinicoradiological findings were suggestive of intracranial tumor. Histologically, fibroblastic proliferation of storiform pattern was noted, associated with epithelioid granulomas. The etiological pathogens for the granulomas could not be detected even though investigation of special histochemical staining, immunohistochemical study and dna analysis of mycobacterium tuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction technique was performed. On electron microscopic examination, the area appearing as a storiform pattern consisted of fibroblasts showing much dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and slender tappering cytoplasmic processes without cellular junctional complex. No organisms were identified in the granulomatous area of the lesion. From those findings the diagnosis as idiopathic granulomatous meningoencephalitis was made.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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14/427. hydrocephalus: a fatal late consequence of mumps encephalitis.

    Common and usually self-limited diseases may occasionally have fatal consequences. hydrocephalus is a very rare complication of mumps, with just a few cases reported in the literature. Here we report a fatal case of hydrocephalus presenting 19 years after mumps encephalitis. The long latency period between encephalitis and hydrocephalus-associated symptoms makes this case particularly interesting.
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ranking = 0.003739822227857
keywords = encephalitis
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15/427. Raised intracranial pressure: its management in neisseria meningitidis meningoencephalitis.

    Further reduction in morbidity and mortality from bacterial meningitis is unlikely to stem from innovations in antibiotic management. Emphasis must therefore be directed toward prevention, more rapid diagnosis, and improved therapy for maintaining the integrity of the CNS. Raised intracranial pressure is frequently associated with bacterial meningitis. In selected patients with bacterial meningitis and clinical evidence of elevated intracranial pressure, monitoring and aggressive treatment of this pressure could be crucial to survival.
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ranking = 1
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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16/427. Radiologic-pathologic findings in raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) encephalitis.

    A 13-month-old boy developed eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, retinitis, and a protracted encephalopathy with severe residual deficits. The initial MR examination revealed diffuse periventricular white matter disease, and follow-up images showed atrophy. brain biopsy, serology, and epidemiologic studies lead to the diagnosis of Baylisascaris procyonis infection, a parasitic disease contracted through exposure to soil contaminated by the eggs of a common raccoon intestinal roundworm. The pathologic, epidemiologic, and imaging features of this disease are herein reviewed.
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ranking = 0.25249321481857
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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17/427. Foix-Chavany-Marie (anterior operculum) syndrome in childhood: a reappraisal of Worster-Drought syndrome.

    Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome (FCMS) is a distinct clinical picture of suprabulbar (pseudobulbar) palsy due to bilateral anterior opercular lesions. Symptoms include anarthria/severe dysarthria and loss of voluntary muscular functions of the face and tongue, and problems with mastication and swallowing with preservation of reflex and autonomic functions. FCMS may be congenital or acquired as well as persistent or intermittent. The aetiology is heterogeneous; vascular events in adulthood, nearly exclusively affecting adults who experience multiple subsequent strokes; CNS infections; bilateral dysgenesis of the perisylvian region; and epileptic disorders. Of the six cases reported here, three children had FCMS as the result of meningoencephalitis, two children had FCMS due to a congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome, and one child had intermittent FCMS due to an atypical benign partial epilepsy with partial status epilepticus. The congenital dysgenetic type of FCMS and its functional epileptogenic variant share clinical and EEG features suggesting a common pathogenesis. Consequently, an increased vulnerability of the perisylvian region to adverse events in utero is discussed. In honour of Worster-Drought, who described the clinical entity in children 40 years ago, the term Worster-Drought syndrome is proposed for this unique disorder in children.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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18/427. lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: reemerging central nervous system pathogen.

    lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a human zoonosis caused by a rodent-borne arenavirus, has been associated with both postnatal and intrauterine human disease. infection in man is acquired after inhalation, ingestion, or direct contact with virus found in the urine, feces, and saliva of infected mice, hamsters, and guinea pigs. Congenital LCMV infection is a significant, often unrecognized cause of chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, microcephaly or macrocephaly, and mental retardation. Acquired LCMV infection, asymptomatic in approximately one third of individuals, is productive of central nervous system manifestations in one half of the remaining cases. Aseptic meningitis or meningoencephalitis are the predominant syndromes, although transverse myelitis, a Guillain-Barre-type syndrome, as well as transient and permanent acquired hydrocephalus have also been reported. Fatalities are rare. We report a patient with meningoencephalitis attributable to LCMV and discuss the spectrum of central nervous system disease, newer diagnostic modalities, and preventive strategies. lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, aseptic meningitis, meningoencephalitis, zoonosis, hydrocephalus, arenavirus.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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19/427. Primary amoebic mengingoencephalitis contracted in a thermal tributary of the Waikato River--Taupo: a case report.

    The case history and identification of the aetiological agent of a case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis contracted from a natural thermal steam is presented. The diagnosis and treatment of suspected cases is discussed.
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ranking = 0.25249321481857
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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20/427. HLA-mismatched CD34-selected stem cell transplant complicated by HHV-6 reactivation in the central nervous system.

    We report here a patient who suffered from PCR- confirmed human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6) meningoencephalitis after allogeneic purified CD34 cell transplantation from his HLA-mismatched sibling donor, even though he had been on intense prophylaxis with i.v. ganciclovir (GCV), acyclovir (ACV) and gamma-globulin containing a specific antibody against HHV-6. Serological evaluation disclosed that both the donor and recipient had IgG antibody against HHV-6 before transplantation. His blood WBC count started to transiently increase on day 10, and all blood components had decreased by day 20. He then developed a severe headache and high blood pressure, and sporadic abnormal neurological findings including nystagmus and delirium. An analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed 8 cells/microl, a glucose level of 130 mg/dl and a protein level of 201 mg/dl (normal, 50 mg/dl) on day 26. At the time, HHV-6 was detected only in CSF by a PCR-based method and he was diagnosed as having meningoencephalitis due to the local reactivation of HHV-6. Although he failed to respond to high-dose therapy with ACV (60 mg/kg/day) and gamma-globulin, the dna of this virus disappeared from the CNS upon treatment with GCV (30 mg/kg/day) combined with the intraventricular infusion of alpha-interferon. His clinical course was further complicated with meningoencephalitis due to staphylococcus epidermidis, and he died of tentorial herniation on day 79 without the recovery of blood components. This experience may indicate that intense prophylaxis to prevent reactivation of HHV-6 in the CNS is essential for the management of such profoundly immunosuppressed patients.
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ranking = 0.75013998969236
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis, human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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