Cases reported "Meningomyelocele"

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1/362. Intraspinal epidermoid cyst occurring 15 years after lipomyelomeningocele repair. Case report.

    The authors report the case of a spinal epidermoid cyst that developed in a patient who had undergone surgery for lipomyelomeningocele repair 15 years earlier. The patient presented with symptoms of retethering. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic intraspinal mass that extended from L-2 to L-5. The mass proved to be an epidermoid cyst. Spinal epidermoid cysts can cause retethering after a repair of lipomyelomeningocele, and the risk of this development can be present for decades. ( info)

2/362. A case of cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia associated with shunt malfunction.

    A 3-month-old female patient presented with a meningomyelocele at the lumber region associated with congenital hydrocephalus. She underwent ventriculoperitoneal (V-P) shunt surgery using the Sophy system. The shunt system was replaced due to a malformation. Following replacement, the patient presented with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia at the age of 8 months. The eosinophilic granulocytosis of the CSF improved dramatically following systemic prednisolone administration. CSF eosinophilia without accompanying inflammation or pyrexia in the present case may have resulted from an allergic response to a foreign material such as the silicone tube pressure valve of the Sophy system or the sutures rather than bacterial or fungal infection. Based on our results, we believe that some patients may experience CSF eosinophilia following postoperative V-P shunt due to an allergic reaction to the shunt equipment. Prompt steroid treatment can produce spontaneous regression in such cases. ( info)

3/362. Successful therapy in a child with a congenital peripheral medulloepithelioma and disruption of hindquarter development.

    PURPOSE: Medulloepithelioma is an embryonal multipotential neuroepithelial tumor with a striking potential for divergent differentiation. It is usually intraocular or intracerebral and associated with a good prognosis only if completely surgically excised. Data regarding therapy in children with incompletely resected tumors are limited. PATIENT AND methods: A girl was born with a large, peripheral, congenital medulloepithelioma associated with complete absence of the left hindquarter and anus. Plain film, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete absence of the left kidney and hemipelvis. A subtotal resection of the mass and reconstruction of the tumor-related anatomical defects were performed. RESULTS: Pathologic examination showed neuroglia and pseudostratified neuroectoderm diagnostic of medulloepithelioma. She was treated with multiagent chemotherapy including vincristine, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, carboplatin, and etoposide. She is now 50 months of age and developing normally without recurrent disease. CONCLUSIONS: A child with an incompletely resected congenital peripheral medulloepithelioma who has experienced long-term disease-free survival after treatment with chemotherapy is described. This report supports a role for adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of children with peripheral medulloepithelioma. ( info)

4/362. The Chiari II malformation: lesions discovered within the fourth ventricle.

    Structural lesions associated with the Chiari II malformation have been identified within the fourth ventricle in 8 patients. During the 42-month period encompassing the operations of the 7 patients treated surgically, only 9 other patients were explored without the discovery of some associated structural lesion. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 26 years. The following lesions were identified: glial or arachnoidal cysts (3 patients), glial or choroidal nodules (3 patients) and subependymoma (2 patients). These lesions were all situated in the roof of the fourth ventricle adjacent to or interspersed with the choroid plexus. Only the cystic lesions were identified by preoperative imaging. In only 1 case did the associated lesion, a 2-cm cyst, seem to contribute to the patient's clinical presentation. Structural lesions of the fourth ventricle associated with the Chiari II malformation are common in patients who are submitted to decompression. These lesions may be dysplasias of developmental origin, or they may be reactive lesions related to chronic compression and ischemia. They do not necessarily required biopsy or excision. ( info)

5/362. The Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia complex presenting in adults with myelomeningocoele: an indication for early intervention.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how adults with myelomeningocoele who develop the Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia complex present, and to determine if surgical intervention influences outcome in these patients. methods: A chart review of the 220 patients who attend a clinic for adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (CASBAH), and follow-up of the five cases with myelomeningocoele who had surgical intervention for associated symptomatic Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia complex. RESULTS: Bilateral upper limb weakness and wasting were the commonest presenting symptoms (four patients). Sensory disturbance (three patients) was also common, dysphagia (one) and ataxia (one) occurring less often. The median time to surgical intervention was 36 months. Two patients had a shunting procedure performed in isolation, two foramen magnum decompression in addition to a shunting procedure and one a foramen magnum decompression. Surgical intervention did not completely reverse problems attributed to the Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia complex in any of the cases. One patient died post-operatively. Of the four who survived one had some improvement in function post-operatively, two remained static and one had further mild deterioration. CONCLUSION: All adults with myelomeningocoele should be questioned about changes in upper limb function for early detection of Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia complex. Our results suggest that early intervention is needed if further deterioration is to be avoided, and to improve the chances of neurological and functional recovery. ( info)

6/362. Migration of the abdominal catheter of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt into the scrotum--case report.

    A 3-day-old male neonate presented with migration of the ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt tip through the patent processus vaginalis resulting in scrotal hydrocele. The association of myelomeningocele with hydrocephalus may have been a predisposing factor in this rare complication. Development of scrotal swelling or hydrocele in a child with VP shunt should be recognized as a possible shunt complication. ( info)

7/362. An unexpected complicationof the remote-controlled intraurethral valve pump for urinary incontinence.

    We report an unexpected complication of the remote-controlled intraurethral valve pump in a patient with neurogenic bladder. A meningomyelocele patient with an atonic bladder received an intraurethral valve pump. Acute urinary retention was caused by a mucus clot obstructing the pump. Prior to extended clinical use, the remote-controlled intraurethral valve pump should be evaluated in prospective multicenter studies. ( info)

8/362. Segmental costovertebral malformations: association with neural tube defects. Report of 3 cases and review of the literature.

    patients with spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) have vertebral abnormalities and numerical or structural rib anomalies that produce thoracic asymmetry. Rib anomalies and dysmorphism are the typical features that differentiate this syndrome from spondylothoracic dysostosis (STD). Jarcho-Levin syndrome is a severe form with involvement of the whole vertebral column. Other associated findings such as congenital heart defects, abdominal wall malformations, genitourinary malformations and upper limb anomalies may be found; in addition, neural tube defects (NTDs) have been associated with this malformation. SCD is transmitted both in a recessive form and as a dominant defect. We report on 3 children with SCD; 2 also had NTDs. All of them were studied with x-rays and spinal magnetic resonance (MR), and over the same period they underwent multidisciplinary clinical functional evaluation. One of our cases with NTD also presented polythelia, which has not previously been described in patients with SCD. The common association of segmental costovertebral malformations with NTDs could be related to an early gastrulation genomic defect, or one after gastrulation, when there are two independent somitic columns. The latter sometimes progresses and then involves primary and secondary neurulation. Also, the association of SCD with NTDs could be related to the interaction of different genes, resulting in this complex phenotype. Therefore, additional genetical and embryological studies are necessary to provide evidence of an etiological link between SCD and NTD. ( info)

9/362. Coexistent holoprosencephaly and Chiari II malformation.

    Chiari II malformations and holoprosencephaly have been considered to be brain malformations that differ with respect to teratogenic insult, embryologic mechanism, and morphology. We herein describe coexistent Chiari II malformation and holoprosencephaly that occurred in a viable infant. A review of the literature regarding Chiari II malformations and holoprosencephaly suggests that a disturbance to the mesenchyme in early embryologic life may be the cause of both malformations. ( info)

10/362. Anomalous ependyma inducing split cord and meningomyelocele?

    The case is that of a female fetus of 17 to 18 weeks' gestation with major defects of the central nervous system: (1) The thoracic vertebrae demonstrated rachischisis, with segmental diplomyelia; the duplicated cords were dissimilar in size and lay side by side within a single meningeal sheath lacking a dividing septum or spur. Cranially to the divided cord lay an unsplit segment of "open cord" lacking the posterior elements and exposing the centrally placed ependyma of the central canal flanked by glial and epidermal lining, respectively; it could be regarded as an example of a meningomyelocele. (2) Heterotopic massed ependymal cells, some of which were actively proliferating, were associated with the choroid plexus in the brain. Minor anomalies included cerebellar heterotopia and the malpositioning of dorsal root ganglia outside the meningeal sheath. Because the ependyma is such a powerful inducer of the development of neighboring tissue, the findings could be united by a common pathogenic theme, viz problematic ependymal development and migration within both the brain and spinal cord. The causative agent responsible for these abnormalities remains unidentified, but the balance of evidence suggests that its effect was felt during the second week of postconceptual age. ( info)
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