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1/70. Gastric intramucosal pH as a monitor of gut perfusion after thrombosis of the superior mesenteric vein.

    Gastric intramucosal pH (pHi) when measured by a tonometer is a simple and minimally invasive method to determine gut ischemia. In a case of severe mesenteric venous thrombosis, we measured pHi intra- and postoperatively over a period of five days. The goal was to monitor improvement or deterioration of gastrointestinal perfusion in the intensive care unit and to perform a second-look laparotomy if the condition worsened. We observed that gastric pHi is a more sensitive parameter for detecting intestinal ischemia than parameters such as arterial pH, base excess, or lactate. This patient's pHi rose continuously, which allowed us to proceed in a conservative way without any further invasive diagnostic interventions. Thus, the application of a gastric tonometer in cases of mesenteric venous thrombosis may help to reduce costs by preventing unnecessary postoperative diagnostic maneuvers such as angiography, computed tomography, or even second-look laparotomy.
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2/70. Mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis in a young patient with protein s deficiency treated with urokinase via the superior mesenteric artery.

    A 32-year-old man, who was previously healthy, had acute abdominal pain without peritonitis. Diffuse mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis were shown by means of a computed tomography scan. A protein s deficiency was found by means of an extensive workup for hypercoagulable state. Successful treatment was achieved with urokinase infusion via the superior mesenteric artery without an operation. This represents an attractive alternative approach to treating patients with this disease. The previous standard of operative intervention(1) can now be reserved for complications, such as bowel infarction with peritonitis, or for those patients with absolute contraindications to thrombolytic therapy.
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3/70. Idiopathic mesenteric thrombosis following caesarean section.

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis, "the great mimicker", is a very rare disorder in pregnancy and the puerperium, particularly when not associated with any pre-existing thrombophilia or autoimmune states. We describe a patient requiring a resection of 150 cm of gangrenous small bowel after uncomplicated elective Caesarean section. The only risk factor for thrombosis was recovery from an elective Caesarean section, a condition classified by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists as "low risk". death from thromboembolism is the leading cause of maternal mortality and should always be considered with unusual post partum symptoms. early diagnosis of mesenteric vascular occlusion is difficult and recent evidence suggests that elevated GST isoenzyme may be helpful. In all cases of MVT anti-coagulation is the basis of treatment. patients who are not anti-coagulated after surgery have a recurrence rate of 25 per cent compared with 13 per cent of heparinised post-operative patients. As no other pre-existing cause for MVT was found, management was with warfarin for 6 months, the oral contraceptive pill was contraindicated and heparin prophylaxis was recommended for future pregnancies.
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4/70. prothrombin gene G20210A mutation and elevated anticardiolipin antibodies in a patient with combined portal-mesenteric vein thrombosis.

    A 29-year-old man was admitted to the ICU after emergency laparotomy for portal-mesenteric vein thrombosis. Under continuous intravenous heparin therapy the portal-mesenteric shunt occluded on the first postoperative day. After thrombectomy the heparin dose was increased, and the patient remained free of symptoms (partial thromboplastin time 53 s). Two days later abdominal distension developed concomitantly with ventilatory distress due to a large retroperitoneal hematoma. The patient was mechanically ventilated and underwent the third consecutive laparotomy for the hematoma removal on the fifth day. During the surgical procedure the abdomen was packed with towels to stop multiple bleeding sites. The heparin dose was reduced, aiming for a partial thromboplastin time of 30-35 s. Initial coagulation tests revealed increased levels of anticardiolipin immunoglobulin g. After removal of the surgical towels the patient was successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation and discharged from the ICU. Two weeks later genomic testing revealed that he also had a G20210A mutation of the prothrombin gene. Both, increased levels of anticardiolipin immunoglobulin g and the G20210A mutation of the prothrombin gene predispose to thrombosis. Increased levels of anticardiolipin immunoglobulin g may also cause bleeding. Long-term anticoagulation therapy was started with a vitamin k antagonist, and 2 months later a follow-up showed that the patient had no further symptoms of portal-mesenteric vein thrombosis or bleeding. This case illustrates that the convergence of multiple risk factors, including genetic defects, must be considered in patients suffering from thrombosis in unusual sites
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5/70. Percutaneous stenting of an latrogenic superior mesenteric artery dissection complicating suprarenal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PURPOSE: To report endovascular repair of an iatrogenic superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection caused by a balloon occlusion catheter. CASE REPORT: A 68-year-old man with a suprarenal aortic aneurysm underwent conventional prosthetic replacement, during which visceral artery back bleeding was controlled with balloon occlusion catheters. Six hours postoperatively, the patient experienced an episode of bloody diarrhea with abdominal pain and tenderness and mild metabolic acidosis. colonoscopy revealed colitis (grade I) without necrosis of the right and left colon. An emergent abdominal computed tomographic scan showed signs of mesenteric ischemia with bowel dilatation and SMA wall hematoma; angiography identified a dissection 1 cm distal to the SMA origin. An Easy Wallstent was deployed percutaneously, successfully reestablishing SMA patency. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient remains asymptomatic with a patent SMA stent and aortic graft at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: latrogenic SMA dissection should be suspected after suprarenal aortic aneurysm repair if signs of mesenteric ischemia arise. Prompt and thorough imaging studies are necessary to confirm the diagnosis and assess the potential for an endoluminal treatment.
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6/70. Transient relief of abdominal angina by Wallstent placement into an occluded superior mesenteric artery.

    A 56-year-old man presented with complete occlusion of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries resulting in chronic mesenteric ischemia. After a minimal angioplasty a Wallstent was inserted across the superior mesenteric artery occlusion. This produced immediate clinical relief, with a successful angiographic result. Eight months later, an intrastent occlusion with acute bowel infarction was treated in emergency by saphenous vein bypass graft. Despite the death of the patient a few days later from a multivisceral failure syndrome, this method seemed to us feasible in treating a chronically occluded SMA in patients with high operative risk.
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7/70. Abdominal compartment syndrome after mesenteric revascularization.

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) results from increased pressure within the abdominal cavity leading to multisystem organ dysfunction. The most common cause of ACS is increased intraperitoneal volume from any source, but extrinsic compression can also cause increased intra-abdominal pressure. Although ACS has been well described in patients with trauma, little has been reported on ACS in postoperative patients without traumatic injuries. We report on a patient who had acute ACS 2 days after surgical revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. With appropriate treatment, the patient made a rapid and complete recovery. We present this case of acute ACS in the postoperative patient without trauma to increase awareness and help minimize death caused by this devastating syndrome.
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8/70. Recurrent nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia after resection of iliac artery aneurysm.

    A case of recurrent nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia in a patient with isolated internal iliac artery aneurysm penetrating the sigmoid colon is described. On the day after the aneurysm and the sigmoid colon had been resected, the patient developed necrosis of the left hemicolon. Fourteen and nineteen days after left hemicolectomy, massive intestinal bleedings occurred, requiring ileectomy. On the basis of operative findings of good pulsation of visceral arterial branches; angiography showing patent mesenteric vessels with some spasms; and pathological findings suggesting mesenteric ischemia, these ischemic events were diagnosed as nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. Low-output syndrome induced by massive intestinal bleeding and atrial fibrillation and sepsis were responsible for the establishment of the nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. Development of disseminated intravascular coagulation and continuous administration of diuretics for acute renal failure seemed to have further perturbed the mesenteric circulation. The patient died of subsequent multiple organ failure 4 months after the first operation. We should pay more attention to nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia in patients with mesenteric ischemia, and strict circulatory management during the perioperative period is essential in these patients.
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9/70. Superior mesenteric artery pseudoaneurysm successfully treated with polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent.

    A postoperative superior mesenteric artery pseudoaneurysm that communicates with a pancreatic pseudocyst after aortic surgery is a difficult management problem. Untreated, this condition can lead to exsanguination. Traditional surgical treatment has many potential complications. Endovascular repair has the potential for avoidance of surgical complications. We present the first superior mesenteric artery pseudoaneurysm successfully treated with A polytetrafluorethylene covered stent.
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10/70. Acute type A aortic dissection with intestinal ischemia predicted by serum lactate elevation.

    Mesenteric ischemia can complicate acute aortic dissection. We report a case of acute type A aortic dissection with perioperative intestinal ischemia, which clinically manifested on the second postoperative day. Serial monitoring of serum lactate level by a conventional blood gas analyzer was useful for early diagnosis and for timely treatment of intestinal ischemia. In this report, monitoring of serum lactate level as a key for the successful management of intestinal ischemia is suggested.
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