Cases reported "Mesothelioma"

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1/9. Unusually high incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma in a town of eastern sicily: an epidemiological and environmental study.

    In a recent epidemiological study, researchers investigated mortality from malignant pleural neoplasms in italy, and they detected some geographic clusters of cases of this disease. We found a town located in a volcanic area of eastern sicily to be of special interest. The residents, some of whom were diagnosed with pleural mesothelioma, had never had any relevant exposure to asbestos during their professional lives. The results of an environmental survey suggested that a possible cause of asbestos exposure was the stone quarries near the town. The products of the quarries contain fibrous amphiboles, which are used widely in the local building industry. These fibrous amphiboles were identified as intermediate phases between tremolite and actinolite. Samples were collected from buildings in the town, and concentrations of amphibole fibers were evaluated. Fibrous phases were detected in 71% of the samples, and fiber concentrations ranged from a few thousand to more than 4 x 10(4) fibers/mg of material. In addition, we conducted a study on the mineral fiber lung burden in a pleural mesothelioma case. Many mineral fibers that were classified as the same tremolite-actinolite fibrous amphibole found in the quarries and in the building materials were detected in the lung tissue. The results suggest that the inhabitants of the town we studied had been exposed for several decades to asbestos fibers that were present in the material extracted from the local stone quarries. The material was subsequently used in the building industry, and this has caused an increased risk of pleural mesothelioma in the area.
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2/9. Asbestos burden in two cases of mesothelioma where the work history included manufacturing of cigarette filters.

    Asbestos has been used in many applications, but possibly one of the more unique was in the manufacturing of filters for cigarettes. The type of asbestos used in this application was crocidolite. Data from several resources indicate that crocidolite was one of the least utilized types of commercial asbestos in the united states. The present study provides quantitative tissue burden analysis data for two mesothelioma cases where the work histories included manufacturing of cigarette filters that contained crocidolite. The data include the number of asbestos bodies and uncoated fibers per gram of tissue, as well as the dimensions of these structures. The conclusion of the findings indicates that the individuals had an appreciable homogeneous exposure to crocidolite asbestos.
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3/9. Malignant mesothelioma in the jewelry industry.

    We conducted a clinical, environmental, pathologic, and mineral lung burden investigation of a 61-year-old man with malignant mesothelioma. For 35 years, up until three weeks prior to pneumonectomy, the patient made asbestos soldering forms at a costume jewelry production facility. Only chrysotile asbestos was used at the plant during the last decade of the patient's employment, and recent environmental sampling of the work-place identified no other asbestos fiber type. Anticipating that the patient would add to the very small number of cases of mesothelioma attributable solely to chrysotile, we found instead that the patient's lung tissue contained large numbers of both coated and uncoated amosite asbestos fibers but, surprisingly, no chrysotile. We subsequently learned that a distributor of both chrysotile and amosite supplied the company during the first 25 years the patient was fabricating soldering forms. The findings underscore the futility of estimating environmental exposure to chrysotile on the basis of fiber counts in lung tissue. Although we previously described non-neoplastic asbestos-related disease among patients engaged in similar work, this case, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first report of mesothelioma in the commercial jewelry industry. As such, it prompted us to initiate a public health campaign to replace asbestos soldering forms in this industry with readily available, safer alternatives.
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4/9. A case of primary malignant pericardial mesothelioma.

    Primary malignant pericardial mesothelioma (PMPM) is an exceedingly rare tumour. One of the largest necropsy series gave an incidence of primary pericardial tumours of 0.0022%, of which mesothelioma is the most common type. In a Canadian epidemiological survey, the annual incidence of PMPM was reported to be one in 40 million. A male predominance of the disease has been described, and the majority of cases occur in the fourth to seventh decades of life. There has been no definite association between asbestos exposure and pericardial disease. Due to its generally late presentation and poor response to therapy, the prognosis is very poor. The present report discusses the case of a 43-year-old man who presented with cardiac tamponade and was subsequently diagnosed with PMPM. cardiac tamponade is a known complication of the malignancy, but it is rarely the first manifestation of cancer. The patient's clinical course was a result of the aggressive nature of PMPM. Effusive constrictive pericarditis and restrictive cardiomyopathy were likely contributors to this patient's disease burden. These processes should be considered and managed appropriately in patients who do not respond to pericardiocentesis or pericardial window as treatment for pericardial tamponade.
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5/9. Pleural mesothelioma in a woman whose documented past exposure to asbestos was from smoking asbestos-containing filtered cigarettes: the comparative value of analytical transmission electron microscopic analysis of lung and lymph-node tissue.

    Asbestos has had many commercial applications, including its use as a major component in various types of filters. Between 1952 and 1956, crocidolite asbestos was used as a component of filters for cigarettes, reportedly greatly reducing tars and nicotine from mainstream smoke. This case report quantifies asbestos burden in lung and lymph node tissue in a 67-yr-old woman who succumbed to mesothelioma. Her only historically documented exposure to asbestos was from smoking crocidolite asbestos-containing filtered cigarettes between 1952 and 1956. Tissue digestion analysis by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) identified crocidolite fibers in lungs and thoracic lymph nodes. Combined ATEM data of lung and lymph node tissue clarified the patient's exposure to asbestos and particularly to crocidolite asbestos and thus to the presence of an entity recognized as the causal agent for mesothelioma.
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6/9. Mineral fiber content of lung tissue in patients with environmental exposures: household contacts vs. building occupants.

    Analysis of tissue mineral fiber content in patients with environmental exposures has seldom been reported in the past. Our studies of six household contacts of asbestos workers indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos concentrations similar to some occupationally exposed individuals. In contrast, our studies of four occupants of buildings with asbestos-containing materials indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos burdens indistinguishable from the general nonoccupationally exposed population. However, one such building occupant exposed for many years and who later developed pleural mesothelioma was studied in detail, and it was concluded that her exposure as a teacher's aide in a school building containing acoustical plaster was the likely cause of her mesothelioma.
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7/9. Asbestos-related disease associated with exposure to asbestiform tremolite.

    Tremolite is nearly ubiquitous and represents the most common amphibole fiber in the lungs of urbanites. Tremolite asbestos is not mined or used commercially but is a frequent contaminant of chrysotile asbestos, vermiculite, and talc. Therefore, individuals exposed to these materials or to end-products containing these materials may be exposed to tremolite. We have had the opportunity to do asbestos body counts and mineral fiber analysis on pulmonary tissue from five mesothelioma cases and two asbestosis cases with pulmonary tremolite burdens greater than background levels. There were no uncoated amosite or crocidolite fibers detected in any of these cases. Three patients were occupationally exposed to chrysotile asbestos; two patients had environmental exposures (one to vermiculite and one to chrysotile and talc) and one was a household contact of a shipyard worker. The tremolite burdens for the asbestosis cases were one to two orders of magnitude greater than those for the mesothelioma cases. Our study confirms the relationship between tremolite exposure and the development of asbestos-associated diseases. Furthermore, the finding of relatively modest elevations of tremolite content in some of our mesothelioma cases suggests that, at least for some susceptible individuals, moderate exposures to tremolite-contaminated dust can produce malignant pleural mesothelioma.
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8/9. Malignant mesothelioma associated with low pulmonary tissue asbestos burdens: a light and scanning electron microscopic analysis of 18 cases.

    Most malignant mesothelioma cases are associated with pulmonary asbestos body (AB) counts significantly greater than those of the general population. However, the question remains whether malignant mesothelioma cases associated with "normal" AB counts (i.e., indistinguishable from the general population) represent background incidence levels or are, actually, asbestos related. We performed AB counts (by light microscopy) and mineral fiber analysis (by scanning electron microscopy) in 18 mesothelioma cases with AB counts within our normal range (0 to 20 AB/G wet lung) and in 19 "control" cases. Our study demonstrated that approximately one-third (6 of 18) of the mesothelioma cases have asbestos fiber burdens greater than 95% of the control levels. These results suggest that these six mesothelioma cases may be asbestos related despite AB counts similar to those of the general population. An asbestos etiology was suggested in three additional cases, but too few amphibole fibers were identified in these cases to be certain of a value above background. The remaining nine cases showed no evidence of an asbestos etiology. Electron microscopic analysis of pulmonary mineral fibers may be required to differentiate asbestos-related mesotheliomas from non-asbestos-related cases when AB counts are within the range of background values.
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9/9. environmental exposure to tremolite asbestos: pleural mesothelioma in two Turkish workers in germany.

    This report concerns two Turkish immigrant workers, aged 50 and 59, who developed histologically confirmed diffuse malignant mesothelioma in the absence of obvious occupational exposure to asbestos in germany. Both patients had spent their childhood in central Anatolia, turkey, where the presence of tremolite asbestos in the environment has been described. In both patients, the lung-dust burden showed a high concentration of amphibole fibers (186 x 10(6) resp. 59 x 10(6) per gram dry tissue), mainly classified as actionolite/tremolite fibers in scanning transmission electron microscopy. In both patients, the disease was thus attributed to early environmental exposure to tremolite asbestos.
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