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1/3. Clinical and pharmacological profile in a clenbuterol epidemic poisoning of contaminated beef meat in italy.

    Long-acting beta adrenergic agonists, such as clenbuterol accumulate in the liver, but not meat of treated farm animals, and result in epidemic poisonings in consumers. We describe an outbreak of poisoning in 15 people, following the consumption of meat. Clinical symptoms (distal tremors, palpitations, headache, tachipnoea-dyspnoea, and also moderate hyperglycaemia, hypokalemia and leucocytosis) were seen in nine hospitalised patients, starting about 0.5-3 h after poisoning, and disappearing within 3-5 days later. clenbuterol was found in the urine of all the symptomatic patients, at higher levels than pharmacokinetic computing (mean level 28 ng/ml, 36 h after ingestion), based on the levels found in the meat (1140-1480 ng/g edible tissue). Thus, epidemic poisoning can be produced following the consumption of contaminated meat. The need for a better definition of pharmaco- and toxico-kinetics, not only for drugs ingested as parent drug, but also when ingested as residues with animal tissues, is recommended.
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keywords = animal
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2/3. copper deficiency myelopathy.

    BACKGROUND: In humans, Menkes disease is the well-recognized neurological disorder due to inherited copper deficiency. Myelopathy due to acquired copper deficiency is not a well-recognized entity in humans, although myelopathy due to copper deficiency is well documented in some animal species. patients: We describe 3 patients who developed a progressive spastic-ataxic gait with proprioceptive deficits. All patients had a severe reduction in serum ceruloplasmin and copper levels. RESULTS: All patients had evidence of posterior column dysfunction clinically and on somatosensory evoked potential studies. Two had a signal change in the posterior column on magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord. CONCLUSION: patients presenting with otherwise unexplained myelopathies should have their serum ceruloplasmin level measured.
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keywords = animal
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3/3. Treatable sensorineural hearing loss.

    Sensorineural hearing loss is generally felt to be an untreatable medical condition. However, in some cases, prompt diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition may reverse the deafness. This article summarizes various treatable forms of sensorineural hearing loss and provides illustrative cases histories of patients who have had sensorineural hearing losses that were improved by medical or surgical intervention. patients with reversible sensorineural deafness due to inadvertent aminoglycoside over-dosage, congenital cholesteatoma, Meniere's syndrome, blood coagulopathy, and perilymphatic fistula all had improvements in auditory function after medical or surgical intervention. Recent experimental studies on animals may explain the basic mechanisms behind hearing loss and recovery. Aminoglycoside ototoxicity appears to have an initial reversible step, followed by a permanent process. Early endolymphatic hydrops and fistulas may cause mechanical effects in the cochlea which can be corrected. Coagulopathy may cause hypoxia which reverses after anticoagulation. These observations reveal that animal experiments can be useful in explaining human auditory dysfunction of the reversible type.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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