Cases reported "Metabolic Diseases"

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1/34. Fits, pyridoxine, and hyperprolinaemia type II.

    The rare inherited disorder hyperprolinaemia type II presents with fits in childhood, usually precipitated by infection. A diagnosis of hyperprolinaemia type II and vitamin B(6) deficiency was made in a well nourished child with fits. It is thought that pyridoxine deficiency was implicated in her fits and was the result of inactivation of the vitamin by the proline metabolite, pyrroline-5-carboxylate.
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ranking = 1
keywords = deficiency
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2/34. Combined 17alpha-Hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency caused by Phe93Cys mutation in the CYP17 gene.

    Seventeen alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is a rare, autosomal recessive form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia not linked to human leukocyte antigen and characterized by the coexistence of hypertension caused by the hyperproduction of mineralocorticoid precursors and sexual abnormalities, such as male pseudohermaphroditism and sexual infantilism in female, due to impaired production of sex hormones. Both 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase reactions are catalyzed by a single polypeptide, cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17), which is encoded by the CYP17 gene located on chromosome 10q24-q25. Mutations in the CYP17 gene have been recognized to cause the 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency syndrome. Here, we describe two phenotypically and hormonally affected Italian patients with 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. The family history revealed consanguinity of the parents. Linkage and haplotype analyses using microsatellites on chromosome 10q24-q25 demonstrated that the two affected individuals were homozygous at these loci. The mutation screening of the CYP17 gene identified a new Phe93Cys missense mutation in exon 1. The amino acid substitution is located in a highly conserved region of the protein and is not a polymorphism because it is not present in one hundred normal alleles. in vitro functional studies showed that the Phe93Cys mutated CYP17 retains only 10% of both 17alphahydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities, according to the severe phenotype. Our results shed more light on the structure-function relationship of the CYP17 protein indicating that Phe 93 is crucial for both enzymatic activities.
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ranking = 3.5
keywords = deficiency
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3/34. dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate treatment for atrichia pubis.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of oral dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) treatment for atrichia pubis in female adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Two XY female adolescents with 17-hydroxylase deficiency and 2 XX females with panhypopituitarism presenting with atrichia pubis were treated with a daily dosage of DHEAS 10 mg/m2 body surface in addition to their regular substitution therapy. The dosage was increased according to clinical response. Pubic hair stages, growth and serum DHEAS were evaluated and in 1 case also serum IGFs and IGFBPs. RESULTS: A dosage of 10 mg/m2 for 1 year led to serum DHEAS levels at the lower limit of the normal range. 15 mg/m2 was needed to achieve pubic hair stage 4-5 and axillary hair in patients with 17-hydroxylase deficiency. In panhypopituitarism, pubic hair developed at a slower pace and reached stage 4 on a dosage of 25-30 mg/m2. Baseline serum IGF-I SDS was -0.67 and did not change on the initial dosage of DHEAS, in combination with submaximal estrogen substitution (10 microg ethinyl estradiol). On the combination of 15 mg/m2 DHEAS and full estrogen substitution, IGF-I SDS increased to an average of -0.15. IGFBP-3 SDS increased from 1.4 to a mean of 2.6 in the first year, and went back to 1.4 in the second year. IGFBP-6 SDS was low at baseline (-2.5) and rose to -1.9 and -1.7 IGF-II and IGFBP-1 showed an irregular pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Oral administration of DHEAS in a dosage of 15 mg/m2 o.d. is an efficacious treatment for atrichia pubis. For females with a panhypopituitarism a higher dosage appears needed. Given this and other biological actions of DHEAS, substitution therapy with DHEAS or DHEA to females with adrenal androgen deficiency appears rational.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = deficiency
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4/34. Inherited metabolic disorders in thailand.

    The study of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) in thailand is in its infancy. The majority are clinically diagnosed since there are only a handful of clinicians and scientists with expertise in inherited metabolic disorders, shortage of well-equipped laboratory facilities and lack of governmental financial support. Genetic metabolic disorders are usually not considered a priority due to prevalence of infectious diseases and congenital infections. From a retrospective study at the Medical genetics Unit, Department of pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital; estimated pediatrics patients with suspected IEM were approximately 2-3 per cent of the total pediatric admissions of over 5,000 annually. After more than 10 years of research and accumulated clinical experiences, a genetic metabolic center is being established in collaboration with expert laboratories both in Bangkok (Chulabhorn research Institute) and abroad (japan and the united states). Numerous inherited metabolic disorders were identified--carbohydrate, amino acids, organic acids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, peroxisomal, mucopolysaccharidoses etc. This report includes the establishment of genetic metabolic center in thailand, research and pilot studies in newborn screening in thailand and a multicenter study from 5 institutions (Children's National Center, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Pramongkutklao Hospital, Ramathibodi and Siriraj hospitals). Inherited metabolic disorders reported are fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency, phenylketonuria, homocystinuria, nonketotic hyperglycinemia, urea cycle defect (arginino succinate lyase deficiency, argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency), Menkes disease, propionic acidemia and mucopolysaccharidoses (Hurler, Hurler-Scheie).
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = deficiency
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5/34. Hypothalamic growth hormone deficiency and supplementary GH therapy in two patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes.

    Two pediatric patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes were diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency with the primary lesion identified as the growth hormone-releasing factor producing cells of the hypothalamus. Stimulation tests with insulin, levodopa and sleep did not overcome the deficient pattern of growth hormone secretion. By comparison, the growth hormone-releasing factor stimulation test generated a normal growth hormone response in these two patients. growth hormone supplementary therapy was effective in terms of growth gain without adverse effects.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = deficiency
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6/34. A child with valproic acid-associated carnitine deficiency and carnitine-responsive cardiac dysfunction.

    valproic acid enhances renal losses of carnitine esters and leads to decreased plasma free carnitine concentrations in many patients receiving valproic acid therapy. However, decreased serum carnitine levels are of unclear pathologic significance, and most children manifest no symptoms of carnitine deficiency. We report a child with valproic acid-associated carnitine deficiency who had severe cardiac dysfunction develop that resolved with carnitine replacement therapy.
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ranking = 3
keywords = deficiency
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7/34. A novel presentation of familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) and current literature review.

    Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which manifests as isolated glucocorticoid deficiency with normal mineralocorticoid function. The disease is secondary to ACTH unresponsiveness, with low serum cortisol concentrations in the presence of markedly elevated ACTH levels. Approximately 40% of patients with FGD have an identifiable mutation in the ACTH receptor gene. The typical presentation of FGD includes recurrent hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hyperpigmentation prior to 5 years of age. patients with point mutations in the ACTH receptor gene are noted to be of tall stature. We report a patient with an atypical initial presentation of this condition. Our patient differed from the typical presentation by having late age of onset, short stature, and few symptoms of FGD. sequence analysis of the ACTH receptor gene showed compound heterozygosity, with two previously reported mutations: S74I and T159K. Her unique presentation further illustrates the phenotypic heterogeneity of this disorder in light of reported mutations.
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ranking = 3
keywords = deficiency
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8/34. copper deficiency myelopathy.

    BACKGROUND: In humans, Menkes disease is the well-recognized neurological disorder due to inherited copper deficiency. Myelopathy due to acquired copper deficiency is not a well-recognized entity in humans, although myelopathy due to copper deficiency is well documented in some animal species. patients: We describe 3 patients who developed a progressive spastic-ataxic gait with proprioceptive deficits. All patients had a severe reduction in serum ceruloplasmin and copper levels. RESULTS: All patients had evidence of posterior column dysfunction clinically and on somatosensory evoked potential studies. Two had a signal change in the posterior column on magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord. CONCLUSION: patients presenting with otherwise unexplained myelopathies should have their serum ceruloplasmin level measured.
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ranking = 3.5
keywords = deficiency
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9/34. heterozygote ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency presenting as symptomatic hyperammonemia during initiation of valproate therapy.

    ornithine transcarbamylase is a mitochondrial urea cycle enzyme. women with heterozygous ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency may have no symptoms or have episodic, symptomatic hyperammonemia, which can be fatal. We report a previously undiagnosed heterozygote ornithine transcarbamylase-deficient patient who had symptomatic hyperammonemia during initiation of valproate therapy. This is the second such patient reported. Symptomatic hyperammonemia during valproate therapy may indicate ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. Since valproate inhibits ureagenesis and can be toxic to mitochondria, it should be used extremely cautiously, or not at all, in ornithine transcarbamylase-deficient patients.
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ranking = 236.59591164494
keywords = ornithine transcarbamylase, transcarbamylase, ornithine, deficiency
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10/34. Unmasking of carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiency during an acute exacerbation of asthma complicated by rhabdomyolysis in a soldier.

    rhabdomyolysis is a life-threatening condition that may result from various etiologies. We report a rare case of severe rhabdomyosis in a soldier after a mild acute asthma exacerbation. Further work-up revealed an underlying deficiency of type II carnitine palmitoyltransferase. The case is discussed along with a review of the literature. It is concluded that acute asthma exacerbations may be a unique precipitating factor of rhabdomyolysis and may therefore unmask underlying metabolic myopathies. asthma may cause rhabdomyolysis through several different mechanisms, and thus the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis in the context of asthma exacerbations should warrant a work-up for metabolic diseases, especially in the presence of high creatine kinase levels. Given the high incidence of asthma, especially among young adults, a high index of suspicion is needed in order that rhabdomyolysis be promptly diagnosed and treated.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = deficiency
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