Cases reported "Metabolism, Inborn Errors"

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1/340. Respiratory chain complex III [correction of complex] in deficiency with pruritus: a novel vitamin responsive clinical feature.

    We report a child with an isolated complex III respiratory chain deficiency and global developmental delay who had severe pruritus with elevated plasma bile acid levels. A liver biopsy showed micronodular cirrhosis, and enzymologic evaluation demonstrated an isolated complex III deficiency in both liver and muscle. His pruritus improved and serum bile acid levels decreased after treatment with menadione and vitamin C.
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2/340. An inborn error of bile acid synthesis (3beta-hydroxy-delta5-C27-steroid dehydrogenase deficiency) presenting as malabsorption leading to rickets.

    Deficiency of 3beta-hydroxy-delta5-C27-steroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSDH), the enzyme that catalyses the second reaction in the principal pathway for the synthesis of bile acids, has been reported to present with prolonged neonatal jaundice with the biopsy features of neonatal hepatitis. It has also been shown to present between the ages of 4 and 46 months with jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, and steatorrhoea (a clinical picture resembling progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis). This paper reports two children with 3beta-HSDH deficiency who developed rickets during infancy and did not develop clinically evident liver disease until the age of 3 years. bile acid replacement resulted in considerable clinical and biochemical improvement. The importance of thorough investigation of fat soluble vitamin deficiencies in infancy is emphasised.
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3/340. A severely affected infant with absence of cysteinyl leukotrienes in cerebrospinal fluid: further evidence that leukotriene c4-synthesis deficiency is a new neurometabolic disorder.

    leukotrienes are potent oxygenated metabolites derived from the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. They comprise the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4, LTE4) and LTB4. The rate limiting step in the formation of cysteinyl leukotrienes is the conversion of LTA4 to LTC4 catalyzed by the enzyme LTC4 synthase. Recently, the first inborn error of leukotriene synthesis, LTC4-synthesis deficiency, has been identified in a patient with a fatal developmental syndrome. We report on an additional infant presenting with severe muscular hypotonia, symmetrical extension in the lower extremities and psychomotor retardation who died at the age of 6 months. Despite intensive investigations no specific diagnosis could be made. leukotrienes were subsequently analyzed in the cerebrospinal fluid. Concentrations of LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4 were below the detection limit (< 5 pg/ml) whereas LTB4 was found to be in the upper normal range. The absence of cysteinyl leukotrienes with normal LTB4 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid is unique and seems to be pathognomonic for LTC4-synthesis deficiency. Our patient most likely represents the second case described so far with this condition. This report provides further evidence that LTC4-synthesis deficiency represents a new neurometabolic disorder.
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4/340. A unique case of derangement of vitamin B12 metabolism.

    The case is described of a child, age 6 1/2 years, with retarded mental development, mild neurological signs and abnormal metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids and methylmalonate, due to an inborn error in the formation of vitamin B12 coenzymes. The patient was treated for almost three years with hydroxycobalamin, folic acid, pyridoxine and choline. Though physical growth was normal, she continued to demonstrate a moderate degree of mental retardation. A brother of the patient died at the age of 5 years, probably of a similar, but undiagnosed, disorder. As far as we are aware there are only four other reported cases similar to the case described here. Two of these patients died and in other other two the defect was so mild that no treatment was necessary and who, in fact, showed appreciable improvement during the follow-up period, which to date amounts to 3 years and 3 months. For reasons detailed in the discussion, it is suggested that the diagnosis of homocystinuria is not complete until studies of folate and vitamin B12 metabolism are undertaken at the same time, so as to identify the metabolic defect(s) responsible for the condition.
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5/340. Mutations in the human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase gene define the disease sialuria and the allosteric site of the enzyme.

    Sialuria is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterized by cytoplasmic accumulation and increased urinary excretion of free n-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc, sialic acid). Overproduction of NeuAc is believed to result from loss of feedback inhibition of uridinediphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase) by cytidine monophosphate-n-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac). We report the cloning and characterization of human UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase cDNA, with mutation analysis of three patients with sialuria. Their heterozygote mutations, R266W, R266Q, and R263L, indicate that the allosteric site of the epimerase resides in the region of codons 263-266. The heterozygous nature of the mutant allele in all three patients reveals a dominant mechanism of inheritance for sialuria.
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6/340. Sialuria in a Portuguese girl: clinical, biochemical, and molecular characteristics.

    Sialuria, a disorder of sialic acid (NeuAc) metabolism characterized by increased free NeuAc in the cytoplasm of cells, is due to failure of CMP-Neu5Ac to feedback inhibit UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) 2-epimerase. We now describe the fifth patient in the world with sialuria, a 7-year-old Portuguese girl with developmental delay, hepatomegaly, coarse facies, and urinary excretion of 19 micromol of free NeuAc/mg creatinine. The patient's fibroblasts stored excess free NeuAc in the cytosolic fraction, and fibroblast UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase activity was only 26% inhibited by 100 microM CMP-Neu5Ac (normal, 79%). The patient's UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase gene displayed an R266Q mutation in only one allele, consistent with known sialuria mutations and with the proposed dominant nature of this disorder. Extensive description of sialuria patients will help to define the clinical and biochemical spectrum of this disease.
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7/340. Inborn defects of fatty acid oxidation: a preventable cause of SIDS.

    Inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation, including medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency are readily detectable and treatable metabolic disorders in which recognition of symptoms is important. Symptoms occur when there is fasting, often associated with illness. If not diagnosed, these inborn errors of metabolism can result in sudden death classified as SIDS. These disorders can be diagnosed by ordering plasma or blood spot acylcarnitine profiles.
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8/340. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: two Japanese adult cases in one family.

    We report two adult Japanese sisters with L-2-hydroxy-glutaric aciduria (acidemia), both of whom were much older (aged 57, 47 years old) than previously reported patients (from neonate to 44 years old), and who presented with differing severity. magnetic resonance imaging revealed typical subcortical white matter lesions in both cases and showed brainstem atrophy and thickness of the calvarium in the elder sister. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric acid levels were increased in urine, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid. These cases suggest that organic acid analysis is necessary even in elderly patients who seem to have neurodegenerative disorders.
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9/340. Clinical and brain 18fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomographic findings in ethylmalonic aciduria, a progressive neurometabolic disease.

    We report a 2-year-old boy with ethylmalonic aciduria and vasculopathy syndrome evaluated by 18fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomographic (18FDG PET) brain scan, with intense uptake of 18FDG in the caudate nucleus and putamen bilaterally but with no morphological changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A repeat 18FDG PET brain scan 1 year later showed a significant bilateral decreased uptake of glucose in the putamen and the head of the caudate nucleus as well as a decreased uptake in the frontal lobes. On MRI, there was atrophy and watershed infarcts in the basal ganglia, explaining the loss of glucose uptake. These results reflect a selective vulnerability of the basal ganglia, their functional derangement, and ultimate degeneration.
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10/340. Transcobalamin II deficiency with methylmalonic aciduria in three sisters.

    Transcobalamin II (TC II) is a plasma protein that binds vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) and facilitates cellular Cbl uptake by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In autosomal recessive TC II deficiency, intracellular Cbl deficiency results in an early onset of megaloblastic anaemia that may be accompanied by neurological abnormalities. Inadequate treatment may lead to neurological abnormalities. We describe three sisters, the daughters of first cousins of Moroccan origin, with TC II deficiency requiring continuous and long-term vitamin B12 treatment. The diagnosis was suspected from the finding of low unsaturated vitamin B12 binding capacity and confirmed by absence of detectable TC II by radioimmunoassay and by inability of cultured fibroblasts to synthesize TC II.
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