Cases reported "Metabolism, Inborn Errors"

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1/349. Juvenile form of dihydropteridine reductase deficiency in 2 Tunisian patients.

    Two brothers are described who had juvenile-onset DHPR deficiency. Both were considered normal until six years of age when they developed a fluctuating and progressive encephalopathy combining mental retardation, epilepsy, pyramidal, cerebellar and extrapyramidal signs.
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2/349. Respiratory chain complex III [correction of complex] in deficiency with pruritus: a novel vitamin responsive clinical feature.

    We report a child with an isolated complex III respiratory chain deficiency and global developmental delay who had severe pruritus with elevated plasma bile acid levels. A liver biopsy showed micronodular cirrhosis, and enzymologic evaluation demonstrated an isolated complex III deficiency in both liver and muscle. His pruritus improved and serum bile acid levels decreased after treatment with menadione and vitamin C.
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3/349. Defect in dimethylglycine dehydrogenase, a new inborn error of metabolism: NMR spectroscopy study.

    BACKGROUND: A38-year-old man presented with a history of fish odor (since age 5) and unusual muscle fatigue with increased serum creatine kinase. Our aim was to identify the metabolic error in this new condition. methods: We used 1H NMR spectroscopy to study serum and urine from the patient. RESULTS: The concentration of N, N-dimethylglycine (DMG) was increased approximately 100-fold in the serum and approximately 20-fold in the urine. The presence of DMG as a storage product was confirmed by use of 13C NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The high concentration of DMG was caused by a deficiency of the enzyme dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (DMGDH). A homozygous missense mutation was found in the DMGDH gene of the patient. CONCLUSIONS: DMGDH deficiency must be added to the differential diagnosis of patients complaining of a fish odor. This deficiency is the first inborn error of metabolism discovered by use of in vitro 1H NMR spectroscopy of body fluids.
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4/349. An inborn error of bile acid synthesis (3beta-hydroxy-delta5-C27-steroid dehydrogenase deficiency) presenting as malabsorption leading to rickets.

    Deficiency of 3beta-hydroxy-delta5-C27-steroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSDH), the enzyme that catalyses the second reaction in the principal pathway for the synthesis of bile acids, has been reported to present with prolonged neonatal jaundice with the biopsy features of neonatal hepatitis. It has also been shown to present between the ages of 4 and 46 months with jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, and steatorrhoea (a clinical picture resembling progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis). This paper reports two children with 3beta-HSDH deficiency who developed rickets during infancy and did not develop clinically evident liver disease until the age of 3 years. bile acid replacement resulted in considerable clinical and biochemical improvement. The importance of thorough investigation of fat soluble vitamin deficiencies in infancy is emphasised.
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5/349. A severely affected infant with absence of cysteinyl leukotrienes in cerebrospinal fluid: further evidence that leukotriene c4-synthesis deficiency is a new neurometabolic disorder.

    leukotrienes are potent oxygenated metabolites derived from the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. They comprise the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4, LTE4) and LTB4. The rate limiting step in the formation of cysteinyl leukotrienes is the conversion of LTA4 to LTC4 catalyzed by the enzyme LTC4 synthase. Recently, the first inborn error of leukotriene synthesis, LTC4-synthesis deficiency, has been identified in a patient with a fatal developmental syndrome. We report on an additional infant presenting with severe muscular hypotonia, symmetrical extension in the lower extremities and psychomotor retardation who died at the age of 6 months. Despite intensive investigations no specific diagnosis could be made. leukotrienes were subsequently analyzed in the cerebrospinal fluid. Concentrations of LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4 were below the detection limit (< 5 pg/ml) whereas LTB4 was found to be in the upper normal range. The absence of cysteinyl leukotrienes with normal LTB4 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid is unique and seems to be pathognomonic for LTC4-synthesis deficiency. Our patient most likely represents the second case described so far with this condition. This report provides further evidence that LTC4-synthesis deficiency represents a new neurometabolic disorder.
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6/349. Multiple acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency: diagnosis by acyl-carnitine analysis of a 12-year-old newborn screening card.

    We report a family who experienced an unexplained neonatal death. Twelve years after the death, we retrospectively diagnosed multiple acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency by demonstrating an abnormal acyl-carnitine profile in the child's archived newborn screening card, using tandem mass spectrometry.
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7/349. Inborn defects of fatty acid oxidation: a preventable cause of SIDS.

    Inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation, including medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency are readily detectable and treatable metabolic disorders in which recognition of symptoms is important. Symptoms occur when there is fasting, often associated with illness. If not diagnosed, these inborn errors of metabolism can result in sudden death classified as SIDS. These disorders can be diagnosed by ordering plasma or blood spot acylcarnitine profiles.
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8/349. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome and pulmonary hypertension in a patient with methionine synthase deficiency.

    An 18-month-old girl presented with macrocytic megaloblastic anaemia followed by haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Metabolic investigations led to the identification of an inborn error of cobalamin metabolism consisting of defective methylcobalamin biosynthesis, probably cobalamin G, since methionine synthase activity was decreased under standard reducing conditions. Despite treatment, pulmonary hypertension progressively developed and responded to oxygen therapy. Renal involvement evolved to terminal failure and haemodialysis, while pulmonary hypertension was controlled by oxygen therapy. Such clinical manifestations have never been reported in association with a defect of methylcobalamin and thus of methionine biosynthesis. A congenital abnormality of cobalamin metabolism was suspected then confirmed in the presence of typical haematological features associated with unusual clinical manifestations such as progressive renal failure and pulmonary hypertension.
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9/349. Transcobalamin II deficiency with methylmalonic aciduria in three sisters.

    Transcobalamin II (TC II) is a plasma protein that binds vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) and facilitates cellular Cbl uptake by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In autosomal recessive TC II deficiency, intracellular Cbl deficiency results in an early onset of megaloblastic anaemia that may be accompanied by neurological abnormalities. Inadequate treatment may lead to neurological abnormalities. We describe three sisters, the daughters of first cousins of Moroccan origin, with TC II deficiency requiring continuous and long-term vitamin B12 treatment. The diagnosis was suspected from the finding of low unsaturated vitamin B12 binding capacity and confirmed by absence of detectable TC II by radioimmunoassay and by inability of cultured fibroblasts to synthesize TC II.
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10/349. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency: review of two cases in one family.

    OBJECTIVE: The authors describe two cases of isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency found in one family. This is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder presenting at birth with seizures, severe neurologic disease, and ectopia lentis. It can be easily missed with metabolic screening; however, the finding of lens subluxation stresses the importance of ophthalmic assessment in making the diagnosis. DESIGN: Two observational case reports. INTERVENTION/methods: Ophthalmic assessment, biochemical assay for specific urinary and plasma metabolites, magnetic resonance imaging, and gene sequencing were used to make the diagnosis of the disease in the proband. The diagnosis was subsequently recognized in a previously affected sibling after the postmortem neuropathology was reviewed. mutation analysis was performed on cultured fibroblasts from the proband to identify and categorize the specific mutation responsible for the disease in the family. From this, future prenatal detection of sulfite oxidase deficiency is possible. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The diagnosis of sulfite oxidase deficiency was established in this family, enabling appropriate genetic counseling and recurrence risk estimation. RESULTS: Point mutations were found in both alleles of the sulfite oxidase gene in the proband. The first is a 623C-->A mutation, which predicts an A208D substitution, and the second is a 1109C-->A, which predicts an S370Y substitution. Both residues A208D and S370Y are critical for sulfite oxidase activity. CONCLUSIONS: Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency is a rare heritable disease for which mutation analysis can allow accurate prenatal screening. It often is difficult to diagnose by clinical presentation alone, but the critical finding of lens subluxation accompanying seizures and diffuse neurologic disease in an infant should alert the physician to the diagnosis.
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ranking = 1.6
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