Cases reported "Metabolism, Inborn Errors"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/39. Irreversible brain creatine deficiency with elevated serum and urine creatine: a creatine transporter defect?

    Recent reports highlight the utility of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques to recognize creatine deficiency syndromes affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Reported cases demonstrate partial reversibility of neurologic symptoms upon restoration of CNS creatine levels with the administration of oral creatine. We describe a patient with a brain creatine deficiency syndrome detected by proton MRS that differs from published reports. Metabolic screening revealed elevated creatine in the serum and urine, with normal levels of guanidino acetic acid. Unlike the case with other reported creatine deficiency syndromes, treatment with oral creatine monohydrate demonstrated no observable increase in brain creatine with proton MRS and no improvement in clinical symptoms. In this study, we report a novel brain creatine deficiency syndrome most likely representing a creatine transporter defect.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = transport
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/39. Clinical and molecular analysis of three Mexican families with Pendred's syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: The autosomal recessive Pendred's syndrome is defined by congenital sensorineural deafness, goiter, and impaired iodide organification. It is caused by mutations in the Pendred's syndrome (PDS) gene that encodes pendrin, a chloride/iodide transporter expressed in the thyroid, the inner ear, and the kidney. OBJECTIVE: To perform a detailed clinical and molecular analysis of patients with Pendred's syndrome from four patients from three unrelated Mexican families. methods: thyroid function tests, perchlorate test, thyroid scintigraphy, audiometry, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed in all affected individuals. Haplotype analyses were performed using microsatellite markers flanking the PDS locus, and the PDS gene was submitted to direct sequence analysis. RESULTS: All patients presented with sensorineural deafness, Mondini malformations of the cochlea, an enlarged vestibular aqueduct, goiter, and a positive perchlorate test. Two patients were hypothyroid, two individuals were euthyroid. sequence analysis revealed a complex homozygous deletion/insertion mutation at the end of exon 4 in the index patient of family 1 resulting in a premature stop codon at position 138. In family 2, the affected individuals were compound heterozygous for a splice acceptor mutation (IVS2 -1G>A) and a 1231G>C transversion substituting alanine 411 by proline (A411P). In family 3, the index patient was found to be homozygous for a transversion 412G>T in exon 4 replacing valine 138 by phenylalanine (V138F). CONCLUSIONS: All patients included in this study presented with the classic Pendred syndrome triad and molecular analysis revealed pendrin mutations as the underlying cause. The identification of three novel mutations, one of them of complex structure, expands the spectrum of mutations in the PDS gene and emphasizes that they display marked allelic heterogeneity.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.2
keywords = transport
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/39. Phenotypic heterogeneity and adverse effects of serine treatment in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency: report on two siblings.

    Clinical experience with the treatment of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency, a rare inherited disorder of serine synthesis, is scarce. We report on two sisters with phenotypic heterogeneity and a favourable response to combined serine and glycine supplementation. The elder sibling was found to be normocephalic at birth and showed moderate delay of white matter myelinisation, while her seizures arrested spontaneously even without treatment. In the younger sister with the classical phenotype, feeding difficulties with recurrent gastro-oesophageal reflux prompted us to treat her temporarily with high-dose serine (1400 mg/kg/day). An arrest of head growth then occurred but could be reversed by reducing the serine supply. In both children serine therapy was associated with decreased concentrations of methionine, isoleucine, and ornithine in the cerebrospinal fluid, attributed to competitive inhibition of neutral amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier. In contrast to reports in the literature, these findings demonstrate that congenital microcephaly, intractable seizures, and dysmyelinisation are not invariably present in patients with 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency. An adverse effect of high-dose serine therapy on head growth and on the transport of neutral amino acids across the blood-brain barrier should be considered and requires adjustment of treatment.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.4
keywords = transport
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/39. carnitine palmityl transferase I deficiency.

    carnitine palmityl transferase I is the key enzyme in the carnitine dependent transport of long chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial inner membrane and its deficiency results in a decrease rate of fatty acids beta-oxidation with decreased energy production. We reported a family of 3 affected siblings who are the product of a first degree cousin marriage. The first 2 presented with typical Reye-like syndrome with unconsciousness, hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia and very high liver enzymes. liver biopsy showed steatosis. On screening of the complete family, the 3rd sibling was found to have hepatomegaly. The 3 siblings showed an acyl carnitine profile with very high free carnitine with almost absent long chain acyl carnitines, suggestive of carnitine palmityl transferase I deficiency. This was confirmed by enzyme analyses in fibroblast cultures. These patients were effectively treated with a diet high in carbohydrate, low in long chain fatty acids with medium chain triglycerides. In conclusion, carnitine palmityl transferase I deficiency is an important cause of Reye-like syndrome, which may be treated easily with very good results if detected early in life.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.2
keywords = transport
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/39. A novel mutation, P126R, in a Japanese patient with HHH syndrome.

    Mitochondrial ornithine transporter deficiency, or HHH syndrome, is a metabolic disorder resulting in various neurologic symptoms, including mental retardation, spastic paraparesis with pyramidal signs, cerebellar ataxia, and episodic disturbance of consciousness or coma caused by hyperammonemia. Several mutations have been reported in the ORNT1 gene encoding mitochondrial ornithine transporter of patients with this disorder. In this article, we report a new patient, a male 15 years of age, who had typical clinical features of HHH syndrome. Because the patient did not have any of the three mutations previously described in other Japanese patients with HHH syndrome, and the only material available from the patient was peripheral leukocytes, we established a genomic polymerase chain reaction method using intronic primers to amplify every exon of the ORNT1 gene, and we directly sequenced the polymerase chain reaction products. Using this method, we documented a novel mutation in this patient, P126R, and demonstrated that HHH syndrome is genetically heterogeneous, even in the Japanese population.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.4
keywords = transport
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/39. EEG features of glut-1 deficiency syndrome.

    PURPOSE: Glut-1 deficiency syndrome (Glut-1 DS) is caused by the deficiency of the major glucose transporter in cerebral microvessels. methods: We performed pre- and postprandial EEG recordings in two unrelated children with Glut-1 DS with developmental delay and seizures predominantly in the morning before breakfast. RESULTS: Extensive epileptiform discharges observed in the fasting state were improved markedly by food intake, as documented in EEG recordings 1 and 2 h after a meal. The ratio of cerebrospinal fluid glucose to blood glucose was decreased in both children. Glut-1 deficiency was confirmed by biochemical and molecular genetic investigations. CONCLUSIONS: Pre- and postprandial EEG recordings offer a simple screening test for Glut-1 DS.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.2
keywords = transport
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/39. X-linked creatine deficiency syndrome: a novel mutation in creatine transporter gene SLC6A8.

    Among creatine deficiency syndromes, an X-linked condition related to a defective creatine transport into the central nervous system has been described recently. Hallmarks of the disease are the absence of a creatine signal at brain spectroscopy, increased creatine levels in blood and urine, ineffectiveness of oral supplementation, and a mutation in the SLC6A8 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man [OMIM] 300036) creatine transporter gene. We report on a patient in whom a novel mutation (1221-1223delTTC) was identified.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.2
keywords = transport
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/39. Congenital creatine transporter deficiency.

    BACKGROUND: Two inborn errors of metabolism of creatine synthesis as well as the X-linked creatine transporter (SLC6A8) deficiency have been recognized. This report describes the features of five identified male patients and their female relatives who are carriers of the X-linked creatine transporter deficiency syndrome. methods: Proton MR spectroscopy was used to recognize creatine deficiency in the patients. Molecular analysis of the SLC6A8 gene was performed, confirming the diagnosis of homozygous males and heterozygous females. RESULTS: We describe four families from a metropolitan area in the U. S. with X-linked creatine transporter deficiency. All affected males present with developmental delay and severe developmental language impairment. Proton MR spectroscopy shows significantly depressed to essentially absent creatine and phosphocreatine in the male patients. Nonsense mutations and amino acid deletions were found in the SLC6A8 gene in the affected families. CONCLUSION: Creatine transporter deficiency may be a more common X-linked genetic disorder than originally presumed. The affected males exhibit mental retardation with severe expressive language impairment.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.6
keywords = transport
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/39. Inborn errors of creatine metabolism and epilepsy: clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Creatine metabolism disorders have so far been described at the level of two synthetic steps, guanidinoacetate n-methyltransferase and arginine:glycine amidinotransferase, and at the level of the creatine transporter 1. guanidinoacetate n-methyltransferase and arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency respond positively to substitutive treatment with creatine monohydrate. guanidinoacetate n-methyltransferase deficiency results in a severe neurologic disease (age of onset 3 months to 2 years) characterized by developmental arrest, neurologic deterioration, movement disorders, mental retardation, autistic-like behavior, and epilepsy. Severe early-onset epilepsy with pleomorphic seizures is a key symptom of this disorder. Data suggest that in patients with guanidinoacetate n-methyltransferase deficiency, epilepsy and associated electroencephalographic abnormalities are more responsive to creatine supplementation than to conventional antiepilepsy drugs. arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and creatine transporter 1 mainly present with mental retardation and severe language disorder. All cases of creatine disorders reported to date have been detected by brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, an expensive technique not routinely used in pediatric neurology. A potential diagnostic strategy to select patients for evaluation using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is proposed in this review.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.4
keywords = transport
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/39. Creatine deficiency syndromes.

    Since the first description of a creatine deficiency syndrome, the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency, in 1994, the two further suspected creatine deficiency syndromes--the creatine transporter (CrT1) defect and the arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency were disclosed. GAMT and AGAT deficiency have autosomal-recessive traits, whereas the CrT1 defect is a X-linked disorder. All patients reveal developmental delay/regression, mental retardation, and severe disturbance of their expressive and cognitive speech. The common feature of all creatine deficiency syndromes is the severe depletion of creatine/phosphocreatine in the brain. Only the GAMT deficiency is in addition characterized by accumulation of guanidinoacetic acid in brain and body fluids. Guanidinoacetic acid seems to be responsible for intractable seizures and the movement disorder, both exclusively found in GAMT deficiency. Treatment with oral creatine supplementation is in part successful in GAMT and AGAT deficiency, whereas in CrT1 defect it is not able to replenish creatine in the brain. Treatment of combined arginine restriction and ornithine substitution in GAMT deficiency is capable to decrease guanidinoacetic acid permanently and improves the clinical outcome. The lack of the creatine/phosphocreatine signal in the patient's brain by means of in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is the common finding and the diagnostic clue in all three diseases. In AGAT deficiency guanidinoacetic acid is decreased, whereas creatine in blood was found to be normal. On the other hand the CrT1 defect is characterized by an increased concentration of creatine in blood and urine whereas guanidinoacetic acid concentration is normal. The increasing number of patients detected very recently suffering from a creatine deficiency syndrome and the unfavorable outcome highlights the need of further attempts in early recognition of affected individuals and in optimizing its treatment. The study of creatine deficiency syndromes and their comparative consideration contributes to the better understanding of the pathophysiological role of creatine and other guanidino compounds in man.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.2
keywords = transport
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Metabolism, Inborn Errors'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.