Cases reported "Metaplasia"

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1/6. Familial adenomatous polyposis: a case report and histologic mucin study.

    adenocarcinoma arising at an ileostomy is uncommon, and only 29 cases have been reported in the literature. The case of a 54-year-old man who developed an adenocarcinoma at a Brooke ileostomy is reported. The ileostomy had been fashioned 21 years earlier after proctocolectomy for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). A wide local excision of the stoma was performed, and a new Brooke ileostomy was fashioned on the opposite side of the abdomen. Histopathologic examination revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with early invasion of the submucosa. On hematoxylin and eosin staining, the ileal mucosa adjacent to the tumor showed signs of colonic metaplasia, including loss of villous architecture and a reduced number of paneth cells. Mucin staining using the high iron diamine-alcian blue stain demonstrated a mixture of sulfomucin and sialomucin in the ileal mucosa near the tumor, confirming colonic metaplasia. ileostomy site carcinogenesis can be attributed to both the colonic metaplasia and the inherent nature of FAP or ulcerative colitis (UC), where colonic mucosa is susceptible to adenoma formation or dysplasia. Longstanding ileostomies in patients with FAP or UC should be followed to exclude the development of adenoma, dysplasia, or cancer.
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2/6. Atypical medullary carcinoma of the breast with cartilaginous metaplasia in a patient with a BRCA1 germline mutation.

    We examined a 34-year-old premenopausal woman who had noticed a left-breast lump a month previously. She had no past history of malignancies but had a family history of breast and ovarian cancers. Her mother had suffered from ovarian cancer when aged 47 years and had died of the disease at age 52. The younger two of the patient's four aunts had developed breast cancer when they were 37 and 48 years old. A physical examination showed an ill-defined mass, 1.5 cm in diameter, located in the upper outer quadrant of the patient's left breast. mammography revealed diffuse microcalcification in both breasts but ultrasonography revealed an irregular tumorous lesion only in the left breast. Aspiration breast cytology revealed adenocarcinoma of the left breast. Modified radical mastectomy of the left breast and excision of a biopsy specimen from the right breast were carried out simultaneously. Histopathologically the left-breast tumor was an atypical medullary carcinoma with cartilaginous metaplasia, of histological grade 3, and the right-breast specimen showed fibrocystic changes with atypical ductal hyperplasia. Estrogen receptors were positive, but progesterone receptor was not detected on the tumor cells, which were immunopositive for nuclear p53 although c-erbB-2 overexpression was not observed. A nonsense germline mutation of the BRCA1 gene (exon5) was detected. The patient has been well since the operation (10 months). These findings may provide useful information about the carcinogenesis and biological behavior of BRCA1-associated breast cancers.
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keywords = carcinogenesis
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3/6. Heterotopic gastric mucosa together with intestinal metaplasia and moderate dysplasia in the gall bladder: report of two clinically unusual cases with literature review.

    We report the clinicopathological findings of two patients with ectopic gastric mucosa within the gall ladder. The first patient, a 78 year old man, was asymptomatic. He was admitted to hospital for a colon adenocarcinoma. Intraoperatively, a firm nodule was palpable in the gall bladder. Histological examination of the resected specimen revealed a body type gastric mucosa in the submucosa, adjacent to which were extensive pyloric gland and intestinal metaplasia with mild to moderate dysplasia. The remaining gall bladder mucosa demonstrated changes of chronic cholecystitis. The second patient was a 62 year old woman with symptoms of chronic cholecystitis. The preoperative diagnosis was consistent with this diagnosis with a "polyp" at the junction of the neck and cystic duct. cholecystectomy was performed and the histological examination of the resected specimen showed that the "polyp" consisted of heterotopic gastric mucosa with glands of body and fundus type. In the remaining mucosa, chronic cholecystitis was evident. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a clinicopathological presentation of heterotopic gastric mucosa, pyloric gland type, and intestinal metaplasia with dysplastic changes in the gall bladder. As heterotopic tissue may promote carcinogenesis of the gall bladder, close attention should be paid to any occurrence of such lesions in this anatomical region.
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4/6. Barrett's esophagus and squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with psychogenic vomiting.

    We report the association of Barrett's esophagus and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the distal esophagus in a young 31-yr-old woman with a history of self-induced psychogenic vomiting. The development of intestinalized columnar mucosa and esophageal cancer in this young patient illustrates the complicated associations between human behavior and pathogenetic mechanisms involved in esophageal carcinogenesis.
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5/6. Chromosome 9p deletion in squamous metaplasia in cystic lesion of the lung.

    A 70-year-old man presented with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Examination of the resected specimen showed a tumour and a thickly walled cyst not immediately adjacent to the main tumour. The surface of the cyst was lined by squamous metaplastic epithelium. Microsatellite analysis of microdissected specimens was performed with seven markers from four chromosomal regions. In the squamous cell carcinoma, a non-informative homozygosity at two markers on 3p, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at D5S346 on 5q, and LOH at D9S146, D9S150, and D9S1748 on 9p were detected. In the metaplastic epithelium of the cyst, LOH was detected at D9S1748 on 9p21. This appears to be the first report providing possible evidence of genetic changes by demonstrating allelic loss on 9p21 in the metaplastic epithelium of a cyst. This allelic loss might be related to an early step in carcinogenesis in lung cysts.
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6/6. Bile duct cancer developing 21 years after choledochoduodenostomy.

    BACKGROUND: cholangiocarcinoma in patients with choledochoenterostomy has been a rare condition with few cases reported in the literature written in English, and there have been few pathological descriptions of this disease. However, it has recently been documented as a late complication of choledochoenteric anastomosis, and has become a serious issue today since choledochoenterostomy and sphincteroplasty for benign biliary lesions were frequently resorted to in the 1970s and 1980s. The authors here present a case of a 67-year-old woman who developed a cholangiocarcinoma 21 years after choledochoduodenostomy. methods: The patient underwent a curative resection of the tumor with a hepatopancreatoduodenectomy after a detailed preoperative assessment, including cholangiography and cholangioscopy. RESULTS: Although this tumor has been reported to have a poor prognosis, a precise preoperative evaluation and aggressive surgery may contribute to better survival. Pathologically, the tumor originated in the bile duct mucosa of the choledochoduodenostomy, and was accompanied by intestinal and pyloric gland-like metaplasia. CONCLUSION: These epithelial changes presumably induced by chronic inflammation due to the reflux of intestinal contents and bile stasis may be responsible for the carcinogenesis.
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keywords = carcinogenesis
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