Cases reported "Microcephaly"

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11/51. A trisomy 2 fetus with severe neural tube defects and other abnormalities.

    Examination of an abortus from a 13 week miscarriage revealed a fetus of around 9 weeks developmental age with multiple abnormalities including microcephaly, iniencephaly and encephalocele continuous with cervical and thoracic spina bifida, whose karyotype was subsequently shown to be 47,XY, 2.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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12/51. trisomy 16 in a mid-trimester IVF foetus with multiple abnormalities.

    An 18 week foetus with multiple system abnormalities was found to have full trisomy 16. This appears to be only the third reported case surviving into mid-gestation; typically, this common aneuploidy dies post-implantation. Similarities exist in the abnormalities found in the three cases suggesting that there is a 'surviving' trisomy 16 phenotype. It is characterised by: absent hemidiaphragm, pulmonary hypoplasia/aplasia, major cardiac defect, small chest, vertebral and rib defects, cystic kidneys, absent gall bladder, multiple spleens and imperforate anus, together with cleft palate, nuchal webbing/cystic hygroma, microcephaly, marked dysmorphic facial features and dorsiflexed great toe.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = trisomy
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13/51. A clinical report of a patient with two abnormal cell lines: 46,XX,del(21)(q22.1) and 47,XX, 3.

    mosaicism for two chromosomally abnormal cell lines in the absence of a normal cell line is exceedingly rare. We report a patient with developmental and growth delay, mild dysmorphic features, a history of hypertension and hepatoblastoma who was found to be mosaic for two chromosomally abnormal cell lines. The cell lines, one containing a terminally deleted chromosome 21, the other trisomy 3, were found in her blood. fibroblasts and hepatoblastoma tumor cells revealed only the presence of the deleted 21 cell line. Microsatellite marker analysis suggests a mosaic rather than chimeric etiology for the cell lines. This case is exceptional in that the presence of either of these two cell lines alone is uncommon; finding both of these cell lines in an individual appears to be unique.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = trisomy
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14/51. Large duplication 4q25-q34 with mild clinical effect.

    We report on a 5-year-old Tunisian boy with particular dysmorphic features and mild mental retardation limited in delayed and poor language acquisition. cytogenetic analysis using RHG banding and FISH using whole chromosome four painting probe showed a partial duplication in the long arm of chromosome four. Locus specific probes and CGH confirmed the presence of a ''pure'' partial trisomy 4q due to de novo direct tandem dup(4)(q25q34). Comparative analysis of our case with those published previously, suggests that region 4q31-q33 may be involved in the development of the 4q characteristic dysmorphic features and the distal band 4q35 may be involved in the development of microcephaly and severe mental and growth retardation.
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ranking = 0.82478221639872
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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15/51. tetrasomy 9q in an infant with cleft palate and multiple anomalies.

    We report a patient with partial tetrasomy 9q resulting from a de novo triplication of 9q13q22.1. The clinical features, including microcephaly, beaked nose, short palpebral fissures, camptodactyly, joint contractures, and moderate developmental delay were similar to trisomy 9q, although our patient also had unique features including cleft palate and several unexplained fractures. The latter could be secondary to abnormal tone and contractures. Although tetrasomy 9p is a well-known entity, our patient, to our knowledge, is the first and only individual reported to have tetrasomy 9q.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = trisomy
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16/51. microcephaly is not mandatory for the diagnosis of mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome.

    The phenotype of mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome is characterized by severe microcephaly, growth deficiency, mental retardation, and mild physical anomalies. The MVA syndrome is associated with mosaicism for several different aneuploidies involving many different chromosomes with or without premature centromere division (PCD). To date 28 cases of MVA syndrome have been reported. We report the first case of MVA syndrome without microcephaly. The clinical features in our patient included craniofacial dysmorphic features, growth retardation, and developmental delay. cytogenetics analyses and FISH studies showed multiple aneuploidy with trisomy 18, 19, and 8, respectively in blood lymphocyte and fibroblasts without PCD. This case is compared with the other of MVA syndrome previously reported in literature. From this case report, we suggest that microcephaly is not mandatory for the diagnosis of MVA syndrome.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = trisomy
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17/51. trisomy 18 and a constitutional maternal translocation (2;18).

    Parental chromosomes are usually not analyzed in cases of trisomy 18 because the extra 18 is assumed to have arisen through a meiotic nondisjunctional event. We report on a case of a trisomy 18 and a maternal translocation (2;18)(q34;q12).
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = trisomy
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18/51. trisomy 16p: a longitudinal profile and photo essay.

    As more cases of complete or partial trisomy 16p are described, a clinical picture of these patients is emerging. A specific phenotype appears to be most consistent if the band 16p13.1-16p13.3 is present in triplicate. The hallmarks of this syndrome are microcephaly, a specific facial appearance with round facies, micrognathia, and small protruding auricles, and psychomotor as well as growth retardation. We report on a patient with partial trisomy 16p due to a maternally-inherited balanced translocation between chromosomes 2q and 16p and describe the change in phenotype over 21 years, as well as the level of development achieved.
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ranking = 1.6495644327974
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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19/51. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of de novo dup(5)(q35.2q35.3) and review of the literature of pure partial trisomy 5q.

    An 11-year-old girl presented with the phenotype of microcephaly, moderate mental retardation, motor retardation, short stature, strabismus, brachydactyly, and facial dysmorphism. She had undergone surgery for inguinal hernias. Detailed examinations of the heart and other internal organs revealed normal findings. Her karyotype was 46,XX,dup(5)(q35.2q35.3) de novo. Molecular cytogenetic analysis showed a paternally derived 5q35.2 --> q35.3 direct duplication and led to a correlation between the particular genotype and phenotype. This is the first description of a direct duplication of 5q35.2 --> q35.3. Our case represents the smallest distal duplication of chromosome 5q that is not associated with congenital heart defects. Our case also represents the smallest distal duplication of chromosome 5q that is associated with short stature and microcephaly. Mutations or deletions of the NSD1 gene, mapped to 5q35.2 --> q35.3, has been known to cause sotos syndrome with cerebral gigantism, macrocephaly, advanced bone age and overgrowth. Our case provides evidence that the gene dosage effect of the NSD1 gene causes a reversed phenotype of microcephaly and short stature.
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ranking = 3.2991288655949
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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20/51. Partial trisomy 18 with minimal anomalies: lack of correspondence between phenotypic manifestations and triplicated loci along chromosome 18.

    A 2-year-old boy with microcephaly, developmental delay, and minimal anomalies was found to have an extra submetacentric chromosome equivalent to 18pter   q12. review of the phenotypes produced by various triplicated 18 regions supports the hypothesis that no one chromosome 18 region is sufficient to produce the phenotype of trisomy 18. The mild phenotype of trisomy 18p, the variable phenotype of trisomy 18pter   q12, and the discontinuous phenotype of triplication for band 18q12 alone emphasizes that the contribution of triplicated loci to the phenotype is neither additive nor invariant.
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ranking = 1.75
keywords = trisomy
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