Cases reported "Migraine Disorders"

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1/66. Serial electroencephalographic findings in patients with MELAS.

    To clarify the electroencephalographic characteristics of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS), the medical records and electroencephalograms of six patients with MELAS and two of their relatives with MELA (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, and lactic acidosis, without strokelike episodes) were retrospectively reviewed. All have a point mutation in the mitochondrial dna at nucleotide position 3243. The electroencephalograms (n = 79) were divided into four groups according to the time relation to the strokelike episode: (1) before the first strokelike episode, (2) within 5 days after the strokelike episode (acute stage), (3) between 6 days and 1 month after the strokelike episode (subacute stage), and (4) more than 1 month after the strokelike episode (chronic stage). In the acute stage, 10 of the 11 electroencephalograms (9 strokelike episodes in four patients) revealed focal high-voltage delta waves with polyspikes (FHDPS), which were recognized as ictal electroencephalogram. Ictal events during FHDPS included focal clonic or myoclonic seizure and migrainous headache. In the subacute and chronic stages, focal spikes or sharp waves and 14- and 6-Hz positive bursts were frequently recorded. The authors' results suggest that FHDPSs present a reliable and accurate indicator of a strokelike episode in patients with MELAS.
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2/66. Lamotrigine in the prophylactic treatment of migraine aura--a pilot study.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lamotrigine, a glutamate antagonist blocking voltage-sensitive sodium channels, in the prophylaxis of migraine aura symptoms. Glutamate is one of the main neurotransmitters involved in the development of cortical spreading depression. The study was conducted as an open longitudinal trial over 7 months, with a treatment phase of 4 months and a post-treatment period of 3 months. Thirteen patients suffering from migraine with aura and 2 patients with aura but without migraine were enrolled and treated with lamotrigine. The dose was gradually increased in steps of 25 mg up to 100 mg per day, depending on the patient's aura symptoms. Aura symptoms were reduced from baseline (an average of 1.3 aura episodes per month) to month 4 (0.1, p < 0.001). High statistical significance was also observed with regard to aura duration (23 min at baseline vs 4 min at 4 months, p < 0.001). In all 15 cases, increases in aura frequency (on average sevenfold, p < 0.001) and aura duration (minutes; on average more than threefold, p < 0.001) were evident following cessation of treatment. A number of mild to moderate adverse events without any medical consequences occurred. The study outcome suggests that lamotrigine is effective in preventing migraine aura symptoms and in influencing migraine headache frequency.
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keywords = frequency
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3/66. Gabapentin's effects on hot flashes and hypothermia.

    The author describes six cases in which gabapentin treatment reduced the frequency of hot flashes. In addition, gabapentin treatment enhanced the frequency of hypothermic episodes in a separate patient with known hypothalamic dysfunction. Gabapentin may act directly upon temperature regulatory centers.
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4/66. Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania-like headaches in a child: response to a headache diary.

    Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania and cluster headache are both characterized by recurrent, severe, unilateral headaches accompanied by symptoms and signs of autonomic dysfunction. They are differentiated by the frequency, duration, and medication responsiveness of the headaches. Both occur in childhood, although such reports are rare. A 6-year-old boy presented with chronic paroxysmal hemicrania-like headaches. Through the use of a headache diary, his headaches were found to follow stressful events and resolved shortly after the introduction of the diary. Precipitation of chronic paroxysmal hemicrania-like headaches by stress has not been previously reported. We recommend the use of a headache diary as both an aid to diagnosis and an initial nonpharmacological therapeutic intervention for children with such headaches.
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keywords = frequency
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5/66. Naratriptan in the prophylaxis of transformed migraine.

    We report three patients with transformed migraine, previously refractory to a wide variety of traditional preventive pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions. Naratriptan 2.5 mg given each morning, with a second tablet allowed for breakthrough headache, at least 4 hours later, demonstrated a remarkable reduction in frequency and intensity of daily headache. In addition, a subjective improvement in quality of life and restoration of functioning including a decrease in missed workdays was noted. All three patients had previously experienced good responses to sumatriptan or zolmitriptan, but were limited in frequency of use by the authors. The patients were not experiencing rebound phenomena at the onset of treatment with naratriptan. Clinical responses were noted within 3 to 7 days of initiation of treatment. Traditional risk factor analysis and screening were performed. Naratriptan was extremely well tolerated, with no cardiovascular adverse events reported or observed. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed.
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keywords = frequency
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6/66. Fatal cerebral embolism in a young patient with an occult left atrial myxoma.

    We report a young patient with a fatal cerebral embolism from an occult atrial myxoma. The patient died before echocardiography was performed and at autopsy the definite diagnosis was made. Our patient suffered from migraine of increasing frequency. The physical exercise of sexual intercourse was the precipitating factor of this fatal embolism. The importance of early echocardiography is stressed, especially in view of the recent tendency of early and aggressive stroke treatment.
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keywords = frequency
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7/66. Hearing symptoms in migrainous infarction.

    BACKGROUND: In case reports, migraine headaches have been associated with fluctuating low-frequency hearing loss and sudden, unilateral hearing loss. Auditory symptoms associated with migrainous infarction have not previously been emphasized. OBJECTIVE: To describe migrainous infarction presenting with acute auditory symptoms. DESIGN: case reports. SETTING: Tertiary care hospitals. patients: A 40-year-old man with a history of migraine suddenly developed bilateral hearing loss associated with severe, throbbing, occipital headache, tinnitus, vertigo, speech disturbance, and right hemiparesis. An early audiogram showed profound, down-sloping, sensorineural-type hearing loss bilaterally. Sixteen days later, a follow-up pure tone audiogram documented marked improvement in both sides to a pure tone average of 30 dB. Right hemiparesis and dysarthria also improved steadily for 2 months. A 25-year-old woman with a history of migraine with aura suddenly developed hyperacusis, unilateral hearing loss, and migraine headache early in migrainous infarction. magnetic resonance imaging documented infarcts in the pons and cerebellum. CONCLUSIONS: In these patients, acute auditory symptoms are a part of the prodrome of migrainous infarction. We speculate that these symptoms may have resulted from migraine-associated vasospasm. Migrainous infarction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute auditory symptoms, including sudden, bilateral hearing loss.
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keywords = frequency
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8/66. carnitine palmityltransferase II (CPT2) deficiency and migraine headache: two case reports.

    BACKGROUND: Migraine headache is common and has multiple etiologies. A number of mitochondrial anomalies have been described for migraine, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as one potential pathophysiological mechanism. carnitine is used by mitochondria for fatty acid transportation; its deficiency, however, has not been implicated in migraine pathophysiology. methods AND RESULTS: Two adolescent girls presented to the Headache Center at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center with frequent headaches and were diagnosed with migraine by the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria. Both girls had a history of recurrent fatigue, muscle cramps, and multiple side effects from their prophylactic treatment. carnitine levels were measured and found to be low. carnitine supplementation was initiated. Both patients had a reduction in headache frequency, as well as an improvement in their associated symptoms and other complaints. A skin and muscle biopsy obtained from one patient revealed a partial carnitine palmityltransferase II deficiency in the muscle only. CONCLUSIONS: carnitine palmityltransferase II deficiency may represent another etiology for migraine headache, and may be useful in further defining the pathophysiology of migraine. When properly recognized, supplementation with carnitine may improve the outcome of the migraine as well as the carnitine-associated symptoms.
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keywords = frequency
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9/66. Breastfeeding and migraine headaches.

    Migraine headaches affect 19 percent of adult women. A small group of these migraine sufferers also are breastfeeding mothers. Although a correlation has not been documented in the literature, some women have noted that the onset, frequency, or pattern of their migraine headaches changes during lactation. lactation consultants can provide education and support to breastfeeding women suffering from migraine. They also are in an excellent position to add case studies to the scientific database about this phenomenon.
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10/66. Hemicrania continua: a possible symptomatic case, due to mesenchymal tumor.

    The case of a 28-year old woman with headache resembling hemicrania continua (HC) is described. Since her childhood she had a history of right-sided, side-locked, painful headache attacks, with increasing attack frequency during the last two years, each attack lasting around 24 hours. There were only a few "migrainous" symptoms and signs, thus no photo- and phono-phobia and no vomiting. Only occasionally did she have slight nausea. The clinical picture as well as the complete indomethacin effect suggested a case of HC. However, the indomethacin effect faded away after > 2 months. At that time, a CT scan revealed a tumor in the right sphenoidal bone involving the clinoid process and the base of the skull. A biopsy of the tumor during craniectomy showed a mesenchymal tumor, and the patient was considered inoperable (April, 1989). After cytostatic treatment, she is back in full time work; the headache disappeared and it still has not recurred after approximately 2 years of observation. Neuroradiological investigation should, therefore, be included in the work-up of patients with HC. At the present stage of knowledge, neuroradiological investigations should probably also be included when faced with a typical clinical picture.
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keywords = frequency
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