Cases reported "Milk Hypersensitivity"

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1/57. Markedly high eosinophilia and an elevated serum IL-5 level in an infant with cow milk allergy.

    BACKGROUND: interleukin-5 (IL-5) promotes the production and function of eosinophils, and an increase in the serum soluble CD23 (sCD23) level is suggestive of enhanced type-2 helper T-cell activity. The secretion of a large amount of the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), has been reported to alter the intestinal barrier capacity. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether or not distinct profiles of cytokine production were involved in the marked peripheral eosinophilia of as high as 20,000/mm3 and the gastrointestinal symptoms seen in an infant with cow milk allergy. methods: The levels of IL-5, sCD23, and TNF-alpha in serum and the culture supernatants of mononuclear cells were compared with those in infants with anaphylaxis to cow milk and nonallergic infants. RESULTS: interleukin-5 was detected in the serum (19 pg/mL) but became undetectable after 2 weeks on a milk-free diet together with clinical remission. A kinetic decrease in the serum sCD23 level was also observed during the administration of a milk-free diet with improvement of the eosinophilia in 2 months. The TNF-alpha produced in vitro after stimulation with cow milk protein was not different from in controls. CONCLUSION: It seems likely that the allergic inflammation due to cow milk can induce marked eosinophilia with an associated increase in IL-5 production. ( info)

2/57. Partial cryptogenetic epilepsy and food allergy/intolerance. A causal or a chance relationship? Reflections on three clinical cases.

    The possibility that certain foods or allergens may induce convulsions has already been reported in the literature. None of these studies has, however, shown a close correlation between food allergy and epilepsy, most reports being anecdotal and open to various aetiological hypotheses. The present report concerns 3 children with cryptogenetic partial epilepsy, diagnosed by means of electroencephalography, with behavioural disorders (hyperactivity, sleep disorders and writing difficulties). In these patients, instead of using anticonvulsive agents, treatment was based upon a cows milk-free diet, working on the hypothesis that there could be a casual relationship between intolerance to this food item and the epileptic symptoms. An improvement was observed in the children's behaviour and moreover, the electroencephalographic anomalies disappeared. Upon double blind oral provocation tests, these patients did not present an immediate reaction, but only after a few days. starting the controlled diet again led, in all cases, to disappearance of the electroencephalogram. In conclusion, it would appear feasible to hypothesize the role of food intolerance in the onset of convulsive crises, even if limited to certain types of epilepsy such as the cryptogenetic partial form. ( info)

3/57. food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: clinical perspectives.

    food Protein-Induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a symptom complex of severe vomiting and diarrhea caused by non-IgE-mediated allergy to cow's milk and/or soy in infants. Symptoms typically begin in the first month of life in association with failure to thrive and may progress to acidemia and methemoglobinemia. Symptoms resolve after the causal protein (usually sensitivity to both cow's milk and soy) is removed from the diet. Symptoms recur approximately 2 hours after reintroduction of the protein along with a coincident elevation of the peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte count. The sensitivity is usually outgrown by 3 years of age. The purpose of this review is to delineate the characteristic clinical features, diagnosis and management of FPIES. Furthermore, infantile FPIES will be discussed in relation to clinical syndromes that share features with it ("atypical FPIES") and other food-allergic disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract. ( info)

4/57. A case of allergy to cow's milk hydrolysate.

    We here report a girl, now 3 years old, who has suffered from severe food allergy since her first year of life. She was strongly allergic to cow's milk, and had high levels of IgE antibody (AB) to casein (210 kU/I), beta-lactoglobulin (43 kU/I), and alpha-lactalbumin (23 kU/l) at 12 months of age. In addition, at the same age, she showed positive (2-4 ) skin prick reactions to both unboiled and boiled formulas (Profylac, Nutramigen, and Neocate), besides being positive in RAST to Nutramigen (0.6 kU/l). During the first 3 years, IgE Ab levels against casein and Nutramigen increased to 310 and 1.6 kU/l, respectively. Furthermore, at 3 years of age, she had positive RAST to 14 of 15 tested food allergens, being negative only to codfish. Assessment of eosinophil-related markers revealed high total eosinophil count, increased eosinophil activity, and a low ratio of interferon (IFN)-gamma:IL-5, indicating enhanced IL-5 production. The food allergy was correlated to poor weight gain and increasing problems with atopic allergy in the airways. ( info)

5/57. Allergic colitis presenting in the first day of life: report of three cases.

    Allergic colitis can occur within hours of birth and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any newborn in whom hematochezia develops. This diagnosis should be considered after excluding infectious and anatomic disorders common to this age group. The diagnosis is supported by the healthy appearance of affected infants and specific proctosigmoidoscopic and histopathologic findings. Infants with allergic colitis usually respond to withdrawal of the offending antigen, by the use of hydrolyzed cow's milk protein formula or more elemental formulas, or if the infant has been breast fed, by the strict removal of the offending antigen from the breast-feeding mother's diet. ( info)

6/57. Allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a boy with congenital duodenal obstruction.

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare allergy-related disease, especially in early childhood. We present the case of a 1 year 4 month old boy with congenital duodenal obstruction who developed EG. That diagnosis of EG was made by a series of imaging studies and was confirmed by upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopic biopsy studies which showed significant tissue eosinophilia in both mucosal and submucosal layers. No evidence of parasite segment or ova was found in the stool and biopsy specimen. Specific IgE antibodies to milk were estimated to be 2 (CAP system). Cow's milk allergy was highly suspected but not confirmed by consecutive elimination and challenge tests since the child was too much suffered to be tested. There was partial response to the 2-week treatment with Alfare (semi-elemental formula) and oral prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day. One month after initial examination, perforation of the stomach occurred and exploratory laparotomy disclosed stenosis of the duodenum. Congenital duodenal obstruction was diagnosed based on operative findings and previous sonographic findings. There has been only one report of EG in an infant with congenital duodenal obstruction. The nature of the relationships among cow's milk allergy as a possible etiologic factor, congenital duodenal obstruction as an predisposing factor and EG involvement at both mucosal and submucosal layers remains unclear. ( info)

7/57. kwashiorkor in the united states: fad diets, perceived and true milk allergy, and nutritional ignorance.

    BACKGROUND: kwashiorkor is the edematous form of protein-energy malnutrition. It is associated with extreme poverty in developing countries and with chronic malabsorptive conditions such as cystic fibrosis in developed countries. Rare cases of kwashiorkor in affluent countries unrelated to chronic illness have been reported. We present 12 cases of kwashiorkor unrelated to chronic illness seen over 9 years by pediatric dermatologists throughout the united states, and discuss common causative themes in this easily preventable condition. OBSERVATIONS: Twelve children were diagnosed as having kwashiorkor in 7 tertiary referral centers throughout the united states. The diagnoses were based on the characteristic rash and the overall clinical presentation. The rash consisted of an erosive, crusting, desquamating dermatitis sometimes with classic "pasted-on" scale-the so-called flaky paint sign. Most cases were due to nutritional ignorance, perceived milk intolerance, or food faddism. Half of the cases were the result of a deliberate deviation to a protein-deficient diet because of a perceived intolerance of formula or milk. Financial and social stresses were a factor in only 2 cases, and in both cases social chaos was more of a factor than an absolute lack of financial resources. Misleading dietary histories and the presence of edema masking growth failure obscured the clinical picture in some cases. CONCLUSIONS: physicians should consider the diagnosis of kwashiorkor in children with perceived milk allergies resulting in frequent dietary manipulations, in children following fad or unorthodox diets, or in children living in homes with significant social chaos. The presence of edema and "flaky paint" dermatitis should prompt a careful dietary investigation. ( info)

8/57. Severe food allergies by skin contact.

    BACKGROUND: Ingestion is the principal route for food allergens, yet some highly sensitive patients may develop severe symptoms upon skin contact. CASE REPORT: We describe five cases of severe food allergic reactions through skin contact, including inhalation in one. methods: The cases were referred to a university allergy clinic, and evaluation comprised detailed medical history, physical examination, skin testing, serum total and specific IgE, and selected challenges. RESULTS: These cases were found to have a strong family history of allergy, early age of onset, very high total serum IgE level, and strong reactivity to foods by skin prick testing or RAST. Interestingly, reactions occurred while all five children were being breast-fed (exclusively in four and mixed in one). CONCLUSIONS: Severe food allergic reactions can occur from exposure to minute quantities of allergen by skin contact or inhalation. food allergy by a noningestant route should be considered in patients with the above characteristics. ( info)

9/57. Severe cow's milk protein allergy in a Chinese neonate.

    Cow's milk protein allergy is a growing problem in developed countries. We report the case of a Chinese infant, born at term, who presented on day 28 with severe growth failure, chronic diarrhoea, and metabolic acidosis. Investigations supported a diagnosis of cow's milk protein allergy. This was confirmed by withdrawing and reintroducing the relevant infant formula under controlled clinical conditions. Both acidosis and diarrhoea were seen to resolve, and 'catch-up' growth was evident after introduction of an elemental infant formula. Early recognition of this problem leads to a rapid 'cure', as seen in this case. However, later presentation with other atopic conditions has been reported. ( info)

10/57. serum histamine-releasing activity in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis.

    BACKGROUND: idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare disorder characterized by intermittent, diffuse alveolar bleeding. The pathogenesis of the diseases is unclear, although an association with milk or gluten hypersensitivity has been described, and an immune-mediated damage of alveolar capillaries has been suggested. A previous report showed the release of histamine after cow's milk intake in a newborn with cow's milk intolerance and IPH. methods AND RESULTS: here, we report the detection of serum histamine-releasing activity (HRA) in a 30-year-old woman with IPH. The serum taken during an active phase of the disease induced histamine release from basophils of two normal donors; conversely, when the patient was receiving prednisone and azathioprine, and the disease was in remission, the serum HRA was reduced. serum fractions with a MW lower than 100 kDa displayed an enhanced HRA; in contrast, serum fractions with MW above 100 kDa were not able to induce histamine release, suggesting that the activity was due to a cytokine and not to an immunoglobulin. CONCLUSIONS: the detection of serum HRA provides further evidence that the immune system is activated in the course of IPH and supports an immunologic basis for the alveolar capillary damage, which is responsible for alveolar bleeding. ( info)
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