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1/10. Primary open angle glaucoma in a case of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (kearns-sayre syndrome).

    PURPOSE: kearns-sayre syndrome is characterized by chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, tapetoretinal degeneration and severe generalized myopathy. methods AND RESULTS: We report on a 82-year-old male patient with kearns-sayre syndrome with open angle glaucoma. DISCUSSION: Reports of primary open angle glaucoma with kearns-sayre syndrome are very rare, but it is difficult to believe that this association is merely coincidental.
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2/10. The mitochondrial dna transfer RNALeu(UUR) A-->G(3243) mutation. A clinical and genetic study.

    The mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR) A-->G(3243) mutation was identified in 22 unrelated patients. The probands and their relatives were assessed clinically and by quantitative mitochondrial dna (mtDNA) analysis. While 10 probands had clinical features consistent with the syndrome of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), usually associated with this mutation, 12 probands had other phenotypes including other encephalopathies, chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibres (MERRF), myopathy alone and diabetes and deafness. Histochemical analyses of muscle biopsies showed a higher proportion of cytochrome oxidase (COX) negative fibres, but fewer strongly COX reactive fibres, in patients with CPEO compared with those with MELAS. The proportion of mutant mtDNA present in blood was significantly greater in symptomatic than asymptomatic subjects, and was correlated with age in both. This correlation was not observed in patients with the tRNALys A-->G(8344) mutation. The proportion of mutant mtDNA A-->G(3243) in muscle was always greater than that in blood. Significant correlations between proportion of mutant mtDNA in blood and both age of onset of disease and a clinical severity score were observed. However, the proportion of mutant mtDNA in blood in affected and unaffected cases overlapped, preventing use of the genetic-clinical correlation for prognostic or predictive purposes. The presence of intrafamilial clustering of phenotypes and the imperfect relationship between proportion of mutant mtDNA and the presence or absence of disease suggests that other factors may determine the phenotype. To investigate this possibility further, the tRNALeu(UUR) gene was sequenced in 23 probands and six relatives. In 28 patients the sequence was normal apart from the 3243 mutation, but in members of one family there was a homoplasmic T-->C transition at position 3290 which was not found in 140 controls or 50 other patients with mitochondrial myopathy. The family with this transition had high levels of mutant mtDNA A-->G(3243), with a unique phenotype of predominant skeletal myopathy, suggesting that this second base change in tRNALeu(UUR) may influence the clinical phenotype.
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3/10. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with autosomal dominant inheritance: a clinical and genetic entity of mitochondrial diseases.

    We report a Japanese family with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) with autosomal dominant inheritance, and review 54 reported CPEO patients in seven families (including the present family) with autosomal dominant inheritance and mtDNA deletions in the skeletal muscle. Mean age at onset in the CPEO was 26 years, which is older than that in published solitary cases. In addition to blepharoptosis and external opthalmoplegia, proximal muscle atrophy and weakness were found in 62%, hearing loss in 25%, and ataxia in 17% of the patients. retinal degeneration was not found, and cardiac involvement was very rare. mtDNA deletions in the muscle were multiple and large scale, and all such deletions were located in the non-D-loop region. Autosomal dominant CPEO has unique clinical features which differ from those of solitary CPEO, and is associated with multiple large-scale mtDNA deletions. Thus, autosomal dominant CPEO can be considered a clinical and genetic entity of mitochondrial diseases.
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4/10. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy associated with a single nucleotide pair deletion in the mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR) gene.

    The investigation of pathogenic mitochondrial dna (mtDNA) mutations has revealed a complex relation between patient genotype and phenotype. For unknown reasons, some mtDNA mutations produce specific clinical manifestations such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia; myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fiber disease (MERRF); and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). To enhance our understanding of the association between genotype and phenotype, we investigated a patient with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and severe cerebral calcifications for a mtDNA mutation. There was a deletion of one of three T:A nucleotide pairs in the tRNALeu(UUR) gene of the mtDNA involving positions 3271 to 3273. pedigree analysis suggested that this mutation may have occurred spontaneously in the proband. This analysis represents the smallest mtDNA deletion observed to date and is the first deletion identified within a mitochondrial tRNA. This observation emphasizes the importance of delineating the precise mutation responsible for an oxidative phosphorylation disease for patient diagnosis as well as for genetic counseling of maternal lineage relatives.
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5/10. Mitochondrial disease with encephalopathy or limb girdle myopathy: a report of five cases.

    Over the past 13 years at VGH-Taipei, five cases were morphologically defined as having mitochondrial disease and clinically presented with syndromes other than chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia. There were two cases presenting with dementia, extensive and symmetrical intracerebral calcification but no clinical and other laboratory evidence of skeletal muscle affection; one case with merrf syndrome; one case with congenital myopathy and cardiomyopathy; and one case with prednisolone-responsive and polymyositis-like myopathy. The following comments are made: 1. The inexplicably lower incidence of encephalopathy group might result from inadequate alertness of clinicians. 2. The clinical classification might have some clinical convenience, but, identification of defects at the DAN level and determination of the phenotypic expression with clinical, morphologic and biochemical methods are fundamental for future rational diagnosis and classification of mitochondrial diseases.
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6/10. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and myalgia associated with tubular aggregates.

    Tubular aggregates represent a distinct myopathological feature characterized by basophilic sharply demarcated irregularly shaped subsarcolemmal zones consisting of parallel double-walled tubules of unknown subcellular origin. They are found on rare occasions in a wide spectrum of myopathies, but their significance for the development of muscular symptoms has not yet been fully established. We describe a patient with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) associated with exercise-induced myalgia and tubular aggregates in skeletal muscle. The association of CPEO with tubular aggregates has not been reported before and represents an important differential diagnosis to other syndromes associated with CPEO, especially mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.
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7/10. Abnormal excretion of urinary phospholipids and sulfatide in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.

    We found that patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathies excreted urinary phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin, and phosphatidylserine most likely derived from mitochondria and sulfatide which is specific to myelin or the kidney. It is of interest that four patients with myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers and one patient with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia all showed qualitatively similar abnormal excretion of such urinary lipids. It is conceivable that the urinary acidic phospholipids reflect abnormalities in the mitochondrial phospholipids, which are very important for mitochondrial enzymatic activities.
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8/10. Quantitative evaluation of electron transport system proteins in mitochondrial encephalomyopathy.

    The levels of mitochondrial electron transport system proteins cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and complex III were measured in muscle fibers of patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy using quantitative immunoelectron microscopy. In a patient with Leigh's encephalopathy, immunoreactive COX protein was decreased to 20% of the normal mean value in all muscle fibers examined, while the amount of complex III was within the normal range. In a patient with fatal infantile COX deficiency, the level of COX protein was found to be decreased to 27-40% of the normal value in all muscle fibers examined. In patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis associated with stroke-like episodes (MELAS) and chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), COX protein levels were decreased to 20% of normal in muscle fibers lacking COX activity. In normal fibers, however, COX protein levels were also normal. The amount of complex III protein was normal in COX-deficient muscle fibers. In two patients, in situ hybridization was performed for detection of mitochondrial mRNA. Mitochondrial mRNAs were found to be abundant in muscle fibers with decreased COX protein, suggesting a defect at the mitochondrial protein-synthesis level in a COX-deficient muscle fiber.
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9/10. Retinal manifestations in mitochondrial diseases associated with mitochondrial dna mutation.

    PURPOSE: To scrutinize retinal involvement associated with distinct mitochondrial dna (mtDNA) defects, we reviewed the records of a consecutive series of patients with various mitochondrial diseases. methods: Clinical, laboratory and mtDNA studies were performed in: five patients with kearns-sayre syndrome (KSS); six patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO); three patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episode (MELAS); three patients with myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF); 20 patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON); 30 patients with simple diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: All KSS patients with neurologic and cardiac symptoms associated with a deletion of mtDNA in muscle biopsy specimens showed widespread retinal pigmentary changes characterized by salt- and pepper-like appearance of the fundus. Three of six patients with CPEO, a mild variant of KSS, showed subtle defects at the level of retinal pigment epithelium of the posterior pole, although mtDNA deletion was similar to that in KSS. Of three patients with melas syndrome, one patient showed juvenile cataract and mild retinal pigmentary defect in the posterior pole. Of three patients with merrf syndrome associated with a mtDNA mutation at nucleotide position (np) 8344, one patient showed mild pigment disorder in the posterior pole in addition to optic neuropathy. Two of 20 patients with LHON associated with a mtDNA mutation at np 11778 showed mild pigmentary defect in the macula together with typical optic neuropathy. In addition, two of 30 patients with isolated diabetes mellitus showed a mtDNA mutation at np 3243 (MELAS mutation), but they did not present with any other neurologic or multisystem disorder. CONCLUSION: The retina, in particular the retinal pigment epithelium, is highly vulnerable to be involved by mtDNA defect, and the retinopathy is phenotypically variable and frequently subclinical, depending to some extent on the type or site of mtDNA defect.
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10/10. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary system in mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.

    We investigated endocrine function in patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers (MERRF), and chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO). Hypothalamic-pituitary function was impaired in all three patients with MELAS or MERRF, but none of four with CPEO. A MELAS patient with dwarfism and impaired adolescent development had decreased growth hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). A MERRF patient had emaciation and low adrenocorticotropin. A patient with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy transitional between MELAS and MERRF showed delayed, blunted LH and FSH response to LH-releasing hormone stimulation. We concluded that patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathies, especially MELAS or MERRF, are likely to have hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction.
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