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1/1142. Development of rib notching after a cava-pulmonary anastomosis.

    A patient with tetralogy of fallot and mitral regurgitation developed unilateral rib notching on the right side secondary to a palliative cava-pulmonary anastomosis. After the operation, decreased perfusion of the right upper and middle lobes stimulated the development of collateral vessels from the systemic circulation to the right pulmonary artery. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this has been described. ( info)

2/1142. Bacterial endocarditis in a patient with Marfan's syndrome.

    A patient with Marfan's syndrome and subacute bacterial endocarditis is presented. Echocardiographic studies demonstrated dilatation of the aortic root, prolapse of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve, and the appearance of shaggy echoes on the anterior miltral leaflet, of the kind previously described as representing bacterial vegetations. ( info)

3/1142. mitral valve repair for anterior leaflet papillary fibroelastoma: two case descriptions and a literature review.

    Cardiac papillary fibroelastomas are rare cardiac tumors and have been considered a 'benign' incidental finding that may have significant clinical manifestations. In this paper we report two cases of mitral valve fibroelastoma: one was discovered by chance with transthoracic echocardiography in a young healthy man, the other was an intraoperative incidental finding in a middle aged man with a recent history of acute myocardial infarction. The mitral valve was repaired in both cases after excising the tumor. The patients did well and remain asymptomatic. A literature review was compiled which comprises previous case reports of 34 patients with mitral valve papillary fibroelastomas. Most were asymptomatic, but when symptoms occurred, they could be disabling, such as stroke, cardiac heart failure, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Papillary fibroelastoma is amenable to simple surgical excision or in addition to mitral valve repair or replacement. recurrence has not been reported. ( info)

4/1142. Mitral regurgitation after pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis.

    We report a case of constrictive pericarditis in which trace mitral valve regurgitation was detected preoperatively and temporarily worsened after a pericardiectomy was performed. The early postoperative data suggested that the increased mobility of the lateral wall, in conjunction with an increase in the left ventricular volume, might be one of the causes of the perioperative mitral valve dysfunction. The mitral valve function returned to the preoperative baseline thirteen months after the pericardiectomy. ( info)

5/1142. Profound hypoxemia during treatment of low cardiac output after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PURPOSE: To illustrate the multiple causes of hypoxemia to be considered following cardiopulmonary bypass and how therapy given to improve oxygen delivery may have contributed to a decrease in arterial oxygen saturation to life-threatening levels. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 61 yr old man with severe mitral regurgitation and chronic obstructive lung disease underwent surgery for mitral valve repair. A pulmonary artery catheter with the capacity to measure cardiac output and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) continuously was used. Two unsuccessful attempts were made to repair the valve which was finally replaced, requiring cardiopulmonary bypass of 317 min. dobutamine 5 and sodium nitroprusside 1 were used to increase cardiac output. Soon after, the SvO2 decreased progressively from 55 to 39%. The patient became cyanotic with a PaO2 of 39 mmHg. sodium nitroprusside was stopped and amrinone 100 mg bolus followed by 10 was given in addition to adding PEEP to the ventilation. With these measures PaO2 could be maintained of safe levels but PEEP and high inspired oxygen concentrations were needed postoperatively until the trachea could be extubated on the third postoperative day. CONCLUSION: The profound hypoxemia in this case was likely due to a combination of intra- and extrapulmonary shunt, both augmented by sodium nitroprusside. The desaturation of mixed venous blood amplified the effect of these shunts in decreasing arterial oxygen saturation. The interaction of these factors are analyzed in this report. ( info)

6/1142. Detection of retroperitoneal hemorrhage by transesophageal echocardiography during cardiac surgery.

    PURPOSE: To present a case of massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) which was detected using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). CLINICAL FEATURE: A 50-yr-old man suffering from severe mitral regurgitation (MR) was admitted for mitral valvuloplasty. After the beginning of CPB, the volume in the reservoir was noticed to be gradually decreasing. Although venous cannulation had been properly performed, TEE showed an echo free space around the liver, the spleen and in front of the abdominal aorta showed intraabdominal hemorrhage. After cardiac surgery, emergency laparotomy revealed about 5,000 ml of blood in the retroperitoneal space probably as a result of femoral artery cannulation prior to CPB. hemostasis was achieved, and the patient made complete cardiac and neurological recovery. Retrospective review of the TEE imaging revealed that the kidneys were surrounded by blood bilaterally confirming the diagnosis of retroperitoneal hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: Retroperitoneal hemorrhage during CPB is rare, but may be lethal. Transesophageal echocardiography is a useful monitor not only to evaluate cardiac performance, but also to detect unexpected intraabdominal bleeding during cardiac surgery. ( info)

7/1142. mitral valve homograft for mitral valve replacement in acute bacterial endocarditis.

    Homograft use for aortic valve replacement (AVR) in aortic valve acute bacterial endocarditis (ABE) has gained in popularity, due mainly to the relative resistance of homografts to infection. Recent success with mitral valve homograft use led us to apply homograft mitral valve replacement (MVR) in a patient with severe ABE that was not amenable to valve repair. Following surgery, the patient improved rapidly with normalization of infection parameters and chest radiography, and was discharged home on postoperative day 11. Follow up echocardiography showed good function of the homograft mitral valve with no regurgitation. After four months, the patient had normal valve function, with no evidence of infection. In conclusion, MVR with a mitral valve homograft in the setting of ABE was satisfactory, though patient follow up was relatively short (four months). ( info)

8/1142. Double valve repair and maze procedure for degenerative valvular disease and chronic atrial fibrillation.

    A 61-year-old male with degenerative aortic valve regurgitation, mitral valve regurgitation and chronic atrial fibrillation underwent a combined reparative procedure consisting of aortic valve repair, mitral valve repair and maze procedure. Surgery was successful and postoperatively the patient is in NYHA class I, without anticoagulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of this combined reparative surgery. As advances are made in valve repair surgery, it is expected that similar combined procedures will be performed more frequently in future. The benefits of avoiding valve replacement and anticoagulation after such combination treatment is discussed. ( info)

9/1142. Expeditious diagnosis of primary prosthetic valve failure.

    Primary prosthetic valve failure is a catastrophic complication of prosthetic valves. Expeditious diagnosis of this complication is crucial because survival time is minutes to hours after valvular dysfunction. The only life-saving therapy for primary prosthetic valve failure is immediate surgical intervention for valve replacement. Because primary prosthetic valve failure rarely occurs, most physicians do not have experience with such patients and appropriate diagnosis and management may be delayed. A case is presented of a patient with primary prosthetic valve failure. This case illustrates how rapidly such a patient can deteriorate. This report discusses how recognition of key findings on history, physical examination, and plain chest radiography can lead to a rapid diagnosis. ( info)

10/1142. Symptomatic mitral myxomatous transformation in the elderly.

    The clinical and pathological features of four patients with intractable heart failure, due to myxomatous change in the mitral valve, are described. It is suggested that this change may represent a response of ageing connective tissue to mechanical stress. ( info)
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