Cases reported "Monosomy"

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1/128. 'Identical' twins with discordant karyotypes.

    A chromosomal abnormality in one of the fetuses of a monozygotic twin pregnancy is a rare phenomenon. In the prenatal unit of our cytogenetics laboratory we have recently come across two such heterokaryotypic twin pregnancies. In both cases ultrasound abnormalities were detected in one fetus of each twin pair. Chromosomal analysis showed that one twin pregnancy was discordant for trisomy 21 and the other for 45,X. Ultrasonographic examination suggested a monochorionic twin pregnancy in each case and dna studies confirmed that both sets of twins were monozygotic. Both pregnancies were terminated. Biopsies taken from different sites of the placentas showed chromosomal mosaicism in both cases. There was no clear correlation between the karyotype found close to the site of the umbilical cord insertion in the placenta and the karyotype of the fetus. Sampling of amniotic fluid from both sacs is recommended in diamniotic twin pregnancies if one (or both) of the fetuses has ultrasound abnormalities, even if the twins are apparently monochorionic.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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2/128. Investigation of two cases of paternal disomy 13 suggests timing of isochromosome formation and mechanisms leading to uniparental disomy.

    uniparental disomy (UPD) is the abnormal inheritance of two copies of a chromosome from the same parent. Possible mechanisms for UPD include trisomy rescue, monosomy rescue, gametic complementation, and somatic recombination. Most of these mechanisms can involve rearranged chromosomes, particularly isochromosomes and Robertsonian translocations. Both maternal and paternal UPD have been reported for most of the acrocentric chromosomes. However, only UPD for chromosomes 14 and 15 show an apparent imprinting effect. Herein, we present two cases of paternal UPD 13 involving isochromosomes. Both cases were referred for UPD studies due to the formation of a de novo rea(13q13q). Case 2 was complicated by the segregation of a familial rob(13q14q) of maternal origin. Both propositi were phenotypically normal at the time of examination. Polymorphic marker analysis in Case 1 showed the distribution of alleles of markers along chromosome 13 to be complete isodisomy, consistent with an isochromosome. This rearrangement could have occurred either meiotically, without recombination, or mitotically. A likely mechanism for UPD in this case is monosomy rescue, through postzygotic formation of the isochromosome. In Case 2 the distribution of proximal alleles indicated an isochromosome, but recombination was evident. Thus, this isochromosome must have formed prior to or during meiosis I. A likely mechanism for UPD in this case is gametic complementation, since the mother carries a rob(13q14q) and is at risk of producing aneuploid gametes. However, trisomy rescue of a trisomy 13 conceptus cannot be completely excluded. Given that both cases were phenotypically normal, these data further support that paternal UPD 13 does not have an adverse phenotypic outcome and, thus, does not show an apparent imprinting effect.
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ranking = 3
keywords = trisomy
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3/128. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection pregnancy with trisomy 20p and monosomy 22q in a newborn resulting from a balanced paternal translocation.

    In infertile men who carry a balanced reciprocal translocation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may induce a pregnancy with an abnormal karyotype. This report describes a previously unreported paternal reciprocal translocation leading to a chromosomally unbalanced ICSI pregnancy. The triplet pregnancy resulted in 1 normal girl, 1 physically normal boy with the same balanced paternal translocation, and a severely malformed boy with trisomy 20p and monosomy 22q who died in the neonatal period.
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ranking = 5
keywords = trisomy
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4/128. Partial trisomy 13q22-->qter and monosomy 18q21-->qter as a result of familial translocation.

    We report on a patient with a partial trisomy of chromosome 13q22-->qter and partial monosomy of chromosome 18q21-->qter showing distinct malformations. The phenotype of this unbalanced karyotype has not been previously described. The proband had a craniofacial dysmorphism, neck pterygium, closed fists with overlapping fingers, cutaneous appendix of the left fist, equinovarus and postaxial hexadactyly of the feet, atrial septum defect, unilateral cryptorchidism and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) the father's karyotype 46,XY.ish t(13;18)(13pter-->13q22::18q21-->18qter; 18pter-->18q21::13q22-->13qter) and the child's 46,XY.ish der(18)(18pter-->18q21::13q22-->13qter)pat were established. The mother's karyotype was normal. A risk of unbalanced offspring in carriers of a balanced reciprocal translocation depends on the length and genetic constitution of the exchanged segments. risk figures should come only from empirical data. A phenotypically normal child with a balanced or normal karyotype could be born in the case of alternate segregation. amniocentesis should therefore be recommended in any further pregnancy.
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ranking = 9.0598164255929
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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5/128. monosomy 22 and trisomy 14 may be early events in the tumorigenesis of adult granulosa cell tumor.

    The finding of monosomy 22 and trisomy 14 in a case of adult type of granulosa-thecoma cell tumor and the available information from the literature allow for the hypothesis that, especially monosomy 22, but also trisomy 14, may be early events in the tumorigenesis of adult sex cord-stromal tumors in general, and of granulosa-thecoma cell tumors in particular.
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ranking = 6
keywords = trisomy
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6/128. CHARGE association-related ocular pathology in a newborn with partial trisomy 19q and partial monosomy 21q, from a maternal translocation (19;21) (q13.1;q22.3).

    We report a novel case of partial trisomy 19q and concomitant partial monosomy 21q, segregated from a maternal translocation (19;21) (q13.1;q22.3), identified by spectral karyotyping. Clinical examination revealed dysmorphic features of the face and limbs, cleft palate, bilateral colobomas with associated bilateral colobomatous optic nerve cysts, hearing loss, and a cardiac anomaly. At autopsy, the dysmorphic features and cleft palate were confirmed. The ocular histopathology is described in detail and the cardiac anomaly was further specified. The combination of phenotype features is diagnostic of the CHARGE (coloboma, heart malformation, atresia choanae, retarded growth and development, and/or CNS anomalies, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies and/or deafness) association. This case also has some phenotypic features in common with previous cases of partial trisomy 19q. The importance of a complete autopsy in cases with multiple congenital anomalies and/or genetic abnormalities is emphasized. This will allow optimal genetic counseling and contribute to our understanding of developmental biology.
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ranking = 30.358898553558
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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7/128. prenatal diagnosis of partial trisomy 3p(3p23-->pter) and monosomy 7q(7q36-->qter) in a fetus with microcephaly alobar holoprosencephaly and cyclopia.

    We report the prenatal diagnosis of partial trisomy 3p(3p23-->pter) and monosomy 7q(7q36-->qter) in a fetus with microcephaly, alobar holoprosencephaly and cyclopia. A 26-year-old primigravida woman was referred for genetic counselling at 23 gestational weeks due to sonographic findings of intra-uterine growth retardation and cranio-facial abnormalities. Level II ultrasonograms further demonstrated alobar holoprosencephaly, a proboscis above the eye and a single median orbit consistent with cyclopia. Genetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization on cells obtained from amniocentesis showed distal 3p trisomy (3p23-->pter) and 7q36 deletion, 46,XX,der(7)t(3;7)(p23;q36), resulting from a paternal t(3;7) reciprocal translocation. The pregnancy was terminated. autopsy further confirmed the presence of arrhinencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum and a single ventricle of the brain. The phenotype of this antenatally diagnosed case is compared with those observed in 10 previously reported cases with simultaneous occurrence of partial trisomy 3p and terminal deletion 7q. All cases are associated with severe forms of holoprosencephaly and facial dysmorphism. This delineates an autosomal imbalance syndrome or a dosage effect involving duplication of distal 3p/deficiency of terminal 7q and dysmorphogenesis of the forebrain and mid-face.
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ranking = 31.358898553558
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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8/128. Segregation of digital number with partial monosomy or trisomy of 13q in familial 5;13 translocation.

    It has been postulated that the deletion of band 13q22 may be associated with digital malformations, especially thumb and big toe anomalies. We report a family where the mother is carrying a balanced translocation between chromosomes 5p15 and 13q22. The offspring have a specific and well-defined phenotype depending on which is the unbalanced chromosome in the karyotype. When a partial trisomy of 13q22-->qter is present, the fetuses have polydactyly in the four limbs, and when the fetus is carrying a partial monosomy of this portion, an oligodactyly in all members can be observed.
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ranking = 9.0598164255929
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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9/128. Partial trisomy 4q and monosomy 9p resulting from a familial translocation t(4;9)(q27;p24) in a child with choanal atresia.

    A male infant with a deletion of 9p and concomitant duplication of 4q: 46,XY, der(9)t(4;9)(q27;p24), is described. Parental chromosome analysis showed a balanced maternal translocation. To our knowledge, the above cytogenetic and clinical abnormalities have not been described previously. A phenotype comparison is presented with previously reported cases concerning a deletion of 9p and a duplication of 4q.
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ranking = 4
keywords = trisomy
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10/128. 46,XX,der(2)t(2;10)(2pter-->2q37::10p13-->10pter)[127]/45,X,der(2)t(2;10) (2pter-->2q37::10p13-->10pter)[23]. Karyotype-phenotype correlation and genetic counselling in complex karyotypes.

    We describe a female child with complex cytogenetic anomalies consisting in partial trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 10, terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 2 and--at the same time--a mosaicism for X monosomy. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in which 10p trisomy is associated to a 2qter deletion. Due to the scarcity of cases reported with pure trisomy, it has not been possible to define the 10p syndrome precisely yet. Comparison of our proband's phenotype to both the 2q37 deletion and 10p trisomy showed more features described in 2q37- subjects than in 10p ones. We also discuss the difficulties of genetic counseling in children with complex aberrations.
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ranking = 8.0598164255929
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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