Cases reported "Monosomy"

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11/128. trisomy 11 and a complex t(11;11;22) in a patient with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) following myelodysplasia (MDS): a cytogenetic study of a mechanism of leukemogenesis.

    We describe a 73-year-old man diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) following myelodysplasia with trisomy 11 and with a t(11;11;22). This is the first case with both abnormalities present in the same cells and with the t(11;11;22) involving a chromosome 11 already duplicated at 11q23. This band contains the MLL gene that undergoes partial tandem duplication in patients with 11, which is "promiscuous," being translocated with a large number of genetic partners. Our patient had a complex karyotype that was completely defined by in situ hybridization. This technique demonstrated that the t(11;11;22) derivative with a duplication of band 11q23 carried from three to four copies of MLL. Two copies of the gene were close to each other and centromeric to the break-point region. Therefore, a partial tandem duplication of the MLL gene might have happened before the occurrence of t(11;11;22). Considering the associated chromosome defects, the monosomy for the long arm of chromosome 7, due to an unbalanced translocation t(7;17), further underlines the possibility that a partial tandem duplication of the MLL gene might have taken place.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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12/128. Novel translocation t(3;11)(p21;q24) in multiple myeloma characterised by FISH.

    We present a 72 year old man with multiple myeloma (MM). Cytogenetic and FISH analysis of bone marrow aspirate showed a novel translocation -der(11)t(3;11)(p21;q24). The unbalanced karyotype led to substantial partial trisomy for chromosome 3p and small partial monosomy 11q. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 3 are uncommon in MM and these are reviewed. The patient died 2 years after the diagnosis of MM was made.
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ranking = 5.0598164255929
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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13/128. prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with a cryptic translocation 4p;18p and wolf-hirschhorn syndrome (WHS).

    wolf-hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by distal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 and is characterized by growth deficiency, mental retardation, a distinctive, 'greek-helmet' facial appearance, microcephaly, ear lobe anomalies, and sacral dimples. We report a family with a balanced chromosomal translocation 4;18(p15.32;p11.21) in the father and an unbalanced translocation resulting in partial monosomy 4 and partial trisomy 18 in one living boy and a prenatally diagnosed male fetus. Both showed abnormalities consistent with WHS and had in addition aplasia of one umbilical artery. karyotyping of another stillborn fetus revealed a supernumerary derivative chromosome der(18)t(4;18)(p15.32;p11.21) of paternal origin and two normal chromosomes 4. The umbilical cord had three normal vessels. A third stillborn fetus with the same balanced translocation as the father had a single umbilical artery and hygroma colli.
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ranking = 5.0598164255929
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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14/128. prenatal diagnosis of partial trisomy 4q26-qter and monosomy for the Wolf-Hirschhorn critical region in a fetus with split hand malformation.

    We describe the results of prenatal analyses and postnatal findings in a male fetus with a partial trisomy for the long arm and a small terminal monosomy for the short arm of chromosome 4 with the following karyotype: 46,XY,add(4)(p16.3).ish dup(4)(q26qter)(wcp4 , D4S2336x3,AFMb280xa5x2,4ptel-,WHCR-). G-banding did not identify the origin of the additional chromosomal segment, but this was achieved prenatally by application of RxFISH and whole chromosome painting probes. Subsequent FISH analysis with region-specific YAC clones was used to relate the phenotypic findings such as bilateral split hand formation, specific cardiac and kidney anomalies, microtia, and hypoplastic thorax more exactly to the partial trisomy of the segment 4q26-qter.
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ranking = 30.358898553558
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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15/128. Mirror-symmetric duplicated chromosome 21q with minor proximal deletion, and with neocentromere in a child without the classical down syndrome phenotype.

    We report on a mentally retarded child with multiple minor anomalies and an unusually rearranged chromosome 21. This der(21) chromosome has a deletion of 21p and of proximal 21q, whereas the main portion of 21q is duplicated leading to a mirror-symmetric appearance with the mirror axis at the breakpoint. The centromere is only characterized by a secondary constriction (with a centromeric index of a G chromosome) at an unexpected distal position, but fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with either chromosome specific or with all human centromeres alpha satellite dna shows no cross hybridization. Thus, the marker chromosome represents a further example of an "analphoid marker with neocentromere." Molecular analysis using polymorphic markers on chromosome 21 verified a very small monosomic segment of the proximal long arm of chromosome 21, and additionally trisomy of the remaining distal segment. Although trisomic for almost the entire 21q arm, our patient shows no classical down syndrome phenotype, but only a few minor anomalies found in trisomy 21 and in monosomy of proximal 21q, respectively.
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ranking = 2
keywords = trisomy
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16/128. Three-year-old girl with partial trisomy 4p and partial monosomy 8p with resemblance to Brachmann-de lange syndrome--another locus for Brachmann-de Lange syndrome on 4p?

    We describe a 3-year-old girl with partial trisomy 4p and partial monosomy 8p who had prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, mental retardation, no speech development, mild synophrys, hirsutism, apparently low-set ears, dysphonic hoarse voice, hyperactivity, and small hands with proximal placement of the thumbs. She had recurrent lung infections, due to earlier aspiration and immune deficiency (chronic granulomatous disease). Cytogenetic findings in this and other cases with suggestive phenotype may point to an additional locus for Brachmann-de Lange phenotype.
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ranking = 25.299082127965
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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17/128. Mosaic rearrangement of chromosome 18: characterization by FISH mapping and dna studies shows trisomy 18p and monosomy 18p both of paternal origin.

    Structural abnormalities of chromosome 18p mainly consist of isochromosomes of the short arm, which result in tetrasomy 18p. trisomy 18p is much rarer, and less well characterized. We report on a 12-year-old girl with minor facial anomalies, delayed development, abnormal hands, atopic dermatitis, and hearing loss. She was mosaic for two abnormal cell lines in peripheral blood. In 90% of cells, a dicentric chromosome with duplication of the whole short arm of chromosome 18 resulted in trisomy 18p; 10% of cells had monosomy 18p, arising from a t(14;18)(p11;q11). FISH mapping, with multiple region specific and locus specific probes from the short and long arm of chromosome 18, showed that the structure of the dicentric chromosome 18 was 18pter-->18q23::18q11-->18pter. dna polymorphisms for chromosome 18 showed that the abnormalities of chromosome 18 were paternal in origin. Combining all results, we could link the trisomy 18p and monosomy 18p to a common origin via a complex series of events in an early mitosis.
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ranking = 6
keywords = trisomy
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18/128. holoprosencephaly, sacral anomalies, and situs ambiguus in an infant with partial monosomy 7q/trisomy 2p and SHH and HLXB9 haploinsufficiency..

    We report an infant with holoprosencephaly (HPE), sacral anomalies, and situs ambiguus with a 46,XY,der(7)t(2;7)(p23.2;q36.1) karyotype as a result of an adjacent-1 segregation of a t(2;7)pat. The chromosomal abnormality was diagnosed prenatally after sonographic detection of HPE in the fetus. The baby was born at 37 weeks gestation, and died in the newborn period; he had dysmorphic features consistent with HPE sequence. Postmortem internal evaluation showed semilobar HPE, abdominal situs ambiguus, multiple segments of bowel atresia, dilatation of the ureters, and bony sacral anomalies. Molecular analysis confirmed hemizygosity for the SHH and HLXB9 genes, which are likely to be responsible for the HPE and sacral phenotypes, respectively. Immunohistochemical studies showed intact dopaminergic pathways in the mesencephalon, suggesting that midbrain dopamine neuron induction appears to require only one functioning SHH allele.
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ranking = 4
keywords = trisomy
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19/128. Mild phenotype in two siblings with distal monosomy 12p13.31-->pter.

    We report two sibs with trisomy for the region 2p25.1--> pter and monosomy for the region 12p13.31--> pter, due to adjacent-1 segregation of a maternal balanced reciprocal translocation, 46,XX,t(2;12)(p25.1;p13.31). These sibs presented with a mild phenotype, but nevertheless showed features of each of the contributing aneusomies. monosomy 12p has previously been considered to have a variable and indistinct phenotype. Comparison of these patients with previous reports showed that many features, including microcephaly, facial dysmorphia, developmental and growth delay and dental and digital anomalies are frequently associated with monosomy for 12p. Many of these features are common to other aneusomies, thereby mitigating against a distinct 12p monosomy syndrome at this time. However, the combination of digital and dental anomalies may suggest the presence of this particular monosomy. The proband and his sister had some of the more non-specific features of 2p trisomy syndrome, and comparison with previous reports suggested that the characteristic 2p trisomy syndrome is more usually associated with larger or more proximal trisomies of 2p.
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ranking = 3
keywords = trisomy
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20/128. trisomy 4p and partial monosomy 18q due to paternal translocation t(4;18) (p11; q21.3).

    A carrier status for balanced translocation in either of the parents increases the risk of congenital malformation in the offspring. A case of multiple congenital anomalies in a female newborn was found to be associated with trisomy 4p and partial monosomy 18q as a result of a reciprocal translocation, t(4; 18) (p11; q21.3) in the father. The clinical and cytogenetic findings are compared with characteristic features of trisomy 4p, monosomy 18q and two similar cases reported earlier.
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ranking = 2
keywords = trisomy
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