Cases reported "Motor Neuron Disease"

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1/83. Chronic motor axonal neuropathy: pathological evidence of inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Chronic immune and inflammatory motor neuropathies may resemble motor neuron disease, and the distinction may be particularly difficult if conduction block or GM1 antibodies are absent. The pathology of this axonal type of chronic motor neuropathy has not been characterized except in a few cases associated with paraproteinemia. We describe the clinical, electrophysiological, and pathological findings in a patient with a chronic motor axonal neuropathy, normal immunoelectrophoresis, and no GM1 antibodies. At autopsy the spinal cord was normal with the exception of chromatolytic motor neurons. All the ventral roots were greatly thinned. Of 10 mixed nerves and numerous spinal roots sampled, five showed areas of perineurial, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. There was severe axonal loss in the motor roots that was not as evident in mixed nerves, and the sensory nerves and roots were virtually unaffected. Our findings suggest that a chronic motor axonal neuropathy without paraproteinemia or GM1 antibodies may, in some cases, result from an inflammatory process.
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ranking = 1
keywords = axonal neuropathy, neuropathy
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2/83. Chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, responsive to immunoglobulins.

    The association of central and peripheral demyelination was reported previously. Most of the cases refer to central chronic relapsing demyelination with clinical criteria for multiple sclerosis associated with later signs of peripheral nerve involvement. Other authors, described central lesions in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and in guillain-barre syndrome, as a seldom occurrence. We report a patient in which a chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor nervous system demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, was identified. The patient improved after intravenous immunoglobulin suggesting an immune-mediated mechanism. To our knowledge this presentation was not described before.
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ranking = 0.006143076449269
keywords = neuropathy
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3/83. Immunoadsorption in multifocal motor neuropathy.

    To our knowledge, this is the first reported application of immunoadsorption in a patient with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). The diagnosis relied on the typical clinical features, markedly increased IgM-GM1 antibodies, multiple motor conduction blocks, and motor nerve biopsy. Immunoadsorption was carried out in seven cycles of two sessions each within 97 days. From the first therapy, muscle force as well as nerve conduction velocity and conduction blocks deteriorated continuously. As a consequence, immunoadsorption cannot be recommended as a treatment for MMN.
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ranking = 0.030715382246345
keywords = neuropathy
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4/83. Bilateral phrenic neuropathy as a presenting feature of multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block.

    Diaphragmatic paralysis has previously been reported as a result of diverse pathologic processes involving the peripheral nervous system. We report the clinical history, physical findings, and antibody profile of an atypical case of multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block initially presenting with respiratory failure secondary to bilateral phrenic neuropathy.
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ranking = 0.06143076449269
keywords = neuropathy
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5/83. Motor neuron presentation of an ulnar neuropathy and Riche-Cannieu anastomosis.

    A Riche (7)-Cannieu (2) anastomosis (ulnar-to-median anastomosis in the hand) in the setting of an ulnar or median nerve lesion can produce confusing clinical and electrodiagnostic findings. We report a patient with a deep branch ulnar neuropathy complicated by a Riche-Cannieu anastomosis. His clinical presentation led to an initial diagnosis of motor neuron disease. Extensive electrophysiologic studies clarified the extent of the Riche-Cannieu anastomosis and the ulnar neuropathy.
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ranking = 0.036858458695614
keywords = neuropathy
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6/83. Chronic motor axonal neuropathy associated with antibodies monospecific for N-acetylgalactosaminyl GD1a.

    We report on three patients with chronic motor neuropathy who had elevated titers of immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies against N-acetylgalactosaminyl GD1a (GalNAc-GD1a) and normal titers of antibodies against other gangliosides. Presenting with progressive muscular atrophy, fasciculations, and no sensory deficits, the patients had been diagnosed to have motor neuron disease. Electrodiagnostic features were predominantly axonal. Two patients clinically improved after intravenous Ig infusion and cyclophosphamide therapy. Increased titers of IgM antibodies to GalNAc-GD1a were also found in two of 15 patients with multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block but were associated with concomitant rise of anti-GM1 antibodies. These three cases represent a chronic motor axonal neuropathy in which antibody testing for a minor ganglioside was helpful for instituting therapy.
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ranking = 0.82002333435992
keywords = axonal neuropathy, neuropathy
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7/83. Activity-dependent conduction block in multifocal motor neuropathy.

    patients with multifocal motor neuropathy may complain of muscle fatigue, even though the degree of conduction block assessed at rest has improved with treatment. To explore the mechanism involved, we examined changes in muscle force during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and monitored conduction block before and after MVC in five patients with multifocal motor neuropathy. The results were compared with those for the contralateral unaffected homonymous muscles. For one patient, who had bilateral involvement, a normal subject of a similar age and stature served as the control. Results of conduction studies were also compared with those from six patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with similar compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes after proximal stimulation. During MVC for 60 s, the affected muscles developed prominent fatigue; the force at the end of contraction compared with the initial force was significantly lower for the affected muscles [42 /- 19% (mean /- standard deviation) of the initial force] than for the control muscles (94 /- 9%; P = 0.01). After MVC, the amplitude ratio of CMAPs after proximal versus distal nerve stimulation transiently decreased to 19 /- 14% of that before MVC in the affected muscles, but not in the control muscles (94 /- 3.8% of that before MVC) and in patients with ALS (95 /- 6.7%). In one patient with a focal lesion in the forearm, nerve excitability was monitored at the lesion site before and after MVC for 120 s. There were significant increases in axonal threshold (approximately 48%) and supernormality (approximately 135%) immediately after MVC, suggesting that the axonal membrane had undergone hyperpolarization and, by extrapolation, that this had precipitated the conduction block. This study is the first to show that activity-dependent conduction block plays a role in human disease by causing muscle fatigue.
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ranking = 0.036858458695614
keywords = neuropathy
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8/83. Motor and sensory demyelinating mononeuropathy multiplex (multifocal motor and sensory demyelinating neuropathy): a separate entity or a variant of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy?

    We report 16 patients with motor and sensory demyelinating mononeuropathy multiplex (MSDMM) or multifocal motor and sensory demyelinating neuropathy (MMSDN). These patients had the clinical pattern of motor and sensory mononeuropathy multiplex, electrophysiological evidence of demyelination including conduction block, and segmental demyelination in the sural nerve biopsy. Sixty per cent of patients had high CSF protein. Eighty per cent of patients showed good responsiveness to steroid treatment. Unlike multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), MSDMM is characterized by a shorter course, sensory deficits and sensory nerve conduction abnormalities, absence of GM1 antibody in most patients tested, and a good response to steroid therapy. We believe that MSDMM represents a variant of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and an intermediate link between CIDP and MMN.
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ranking = 0.10443229963757
keywords = neuropathy
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9/83. Anterior horn cell disease and olivopontocerebellar hypoplasia.

    To date, fewer than 30 cases of anterior horn cell disease with associated olivopontocerebellar hypoplasia have been reported. We describe five patients and review the literature on this uncommon disorder. In addition to a syndrome of progressive spinal muscular atrophy similar to that seen in Werdnig-Hoffmann disease, this disorder is characterised by hypoplasia of the olivary nuclei, pons, and cerebellum. Additional clinical features may include dysmorphism, abnormal eye movements, stridor, congenital joint contractures, and enlarged kidneys. Pontocerebellar hypoplasia may be associated with posterior fossa cystic malformations, cerebral atrophy, and a demyelinating neuropathy.
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ranking = 0.006143076449269
keywords = neuropathy
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10/83. A case of spinocerebellar ataxia accompanied by severe involvement of the motor neuron system.

    We report a sporadic case of spinocerebellar ataxia accompanied by later but severe involvement of the motor neuron system. A 72-year-old man began to show ataxia and dysarthria at age 66 years. Neurological examinations revealed saccadic eye movement, slurred speech, truncal ataxia, pyramidal sign, and urinary disturbance. Neither history of alcoholism nor hereditary factors were found. He developed muscular atrophy of the lower and upper extremities and limb ataxia within three years. Superficial and deep sensations were diminished in both feet four years after onset. Thus, he presented with cerebellar ataxia, bulbar sign, upper and lower motor neuron symptoms, sensory disturbance, and autonomic sign after six years at age 72. The level of serum, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) was increased, and muscle biopsy showed marked neurogenic change. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed mild cerebellar and pontine atrophy. Although the combination of spinocerebellar ataxia and motor neuron disease is very rare, the present case suggests the inter-relation of the spinocerebellar and motor neuron systems, and presents peripheral neuropathy as a subtype of multisystem atrophy.
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ranking = 0.006143076449269
keywords = neuropathy
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