Cases reported "Motor Neuron Disease"

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11/237. Motor system abnormalities in heterozygous relatives of a D90A homozygous CuZn-SOD ALS patient of finnish extraction.

    Presently, 64 mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme CuZn-superoxide dismutase have been found in a small fraction of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients worldwide. All but one of these mutations show autosomal dominant inheritance. In scandinavia, the D90A mutation is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and patients have an easily recognizable characteristic phenotype with little variation among patients, even amongst different families. Importantly, all D90A heterozygous relatives of Scandinavian D90A homozygous patients have been reported as clinically unaffected. We have investigated a Canadian family of Finnish extraction in which the D90A homozygous proband developed ALS with the characteristic phenotype. Remarkably, two D90A heterozygous relatives show slight symptoms and signs of motor system involvement, suggesting that the final phenotype of an individual with a CuZn-superoxide dismutase mutation is shaped by the combination of the particular CuZn-SOD mutation, other polymorphic modifying genes elsewhere in the genome, stochastics and possible environmental factors.
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12/237. What is primary lateral sclerosis?

    Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a rare degenerative disorder of the upper motor neuron. Its nosological status and relationship to other motor neuron syndromes, especially amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is uncertain. Diagnostic criteria have been proposed. We discuss the history of this rare clinical disorder, its relationship to the motor neuron disease syndrome, and reports of overlapping clinico-pathological conditions. Two patients with the clinical syndrome of PLS are described to illustrate current understanding of the clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiological features.
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keywords = motor
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13/237. Immunoadsorption in multifocal motor neuropathy.

    To our knowledge, this is the first reported application of immunoadsorption in a patient with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). The diagnosis relied on the typical clinical features, markedly increased IgM-GM1 antibodies, multiple motor conduction blocks, and motor nerve biopsy. Immunoadsorption was carried out in seven cycles of two sessions each within 97 days. From the first therapy, muscle force as well as nerve conduction velocity and conduction blocks deteriorated continuously. As a consequence, immunoadsorption cannot be recommended as a treatment for MMN.
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keywords = motor
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14/237. Rapidly progressive aphasia and motor neuron disease: a clinical, radiological, and pathological study of an autopsy case with circumscribed lobar atrophy.

    This report concerns an autopsy case of rapidly progressive aphasia and motor neuron disease. The patient was a Japanese woman who was 75 years old at the time of death. The family history did not reveal hereditary burden. She developed language disturbances and difficulty in swallowing at age 74. Neurological examination 1 month after the disease onset revealed motor aphasia without dementia and bulbar sign, followed by muscle weakness of the four extremities. Neuroradiological examination revealed progressive atrophy of the anterior part of the left temporal lobe. She died of respiratory difficulty 10 months after the disease onset. Macroscopically, neuropathological examination showed circumscribed atrophy of the left perisylvian region and, histologically, neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex, including the primary motor area, substantia nigra, brain stem motor nuclei, and anterior horns of the spinal cord, in addition to obvious degeneration of the pyramidal tracts and presence of Bunina bodies. ubiquitin-immunoreactive neuronal inclusions were present in the hippocampal dentate granular cells and frontotemporal cortical layer II neurons. Based on these clinicopathological findings and a review of the literature, we concluded that our case is the first reported case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dementia that clinically showed rapidly progressive aphasia.
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keywords = motor
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15/237. Bilateral phrenic neuropathy as a presenting feature of multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block.

    Diaphragmatic paralysis has previously been reported as a result of diverse pathologic processes involving the peripheral nervous system. We report the clinical history, physical findings, and antibody profile of an atypical case of multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block initially presenting with respiratory failure secondary to bilateral phrenic neuropathy.
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ranking = 5
keywords = motor
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16/237. Familial pontocerebellar hypoplasia type I with anterior horn cell disease.

    We report the association of pontocerebellar hypoplasia and anterior horn cell disease in three female siblings. One child presented with the classical clinical and neuropathological features of pontocerebellar hypoplasia with associated anterior horn cell disease, described by Barth as pontocerebellar hypoplasia type I. This patient showed polyhydramnios, congenital contractures, respiratory insufficiency, hypotonia, areflexia, listlessness and myoclonic seizures. Postmortem examination revealed a loss of neurons and reactive gliosis in the pontocerebellum and in addition anterior horn cell atrophy resembling Werdnig-Hoffmann disease. Another sibling demonstrated the same clinical symptoms. However neuropathological findings showed evidence for pontocerebellar hypoplasia only. The third sibling was examined after induced fetal abortion because of prenatally diagnosed arthrogryposis. Anterior horn cell disease was obvious histologically whereas pontocerebellar hypoplasia could not be demonstrated due to cerebral autolysis. The similar clinical and neuropathological findings in the three reported siblings suggest a common genetic defect with different patterns of pontocerebellar hypoplasia and associated anterior horn cell disease. The gene defect of this rare disorder is still unknown. The 'survival motor neuron' gene of spinal muscular atrophy was not found in these three siblings.
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keywords = motor
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17/237. Mitochondrial tRNA(Cys) mutation A5823G in a patient with motor neuron disease and temporal lobe epilepsy.

    We discovered a new homoplasmic mutation in the mitochondrial cysteine tRNA of a 60-year-old Caucasian male suffering from asymmetrical pure lower motor neuron disease (MND) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Furthermore, titrations with Amytal, an inhibitor of NADH:CoQ oxidoreductase, revealed mild mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle tissue, which was described in patients with MND in an earlier report. The mutation was undetectable in 155 Caucasian controls of both sexes, in 40 MND patients and in 13 individuals suffering from TLE. It was, however, detected in a heteroplasmic state in the patient's mother, who did not suffer from a neurological disorder. Since this rare mutation affected a nonconserved base position and was not observed in MND or TLE materials, its relation to disease remains unclear.
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ranking = 5
keywords = motor
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18/237. Motor neuron presentation of an ulnar neuropathy and Riche-Cannieu anastomosis.

    A Riche (7)-Cannieu (2) anastomosis (ulnar-to-median anastomosis in the hand) in the setting of an ulnar or median nerve lesion can produce confusing clinical and electrodiagnostic findings. We report a patient with a deep branch ulnar neuropathy complicated by a Riche-Cannieu anastomosis. His clinical presentation led to an initial diagnosis of motor neuron disease. Extensive electrophysiologic studies clarified the extent of the Riche-Cannieu anastomosis and the ulnar neuropathy.
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keywords = motor
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19/237. pathology of Madras type of motor neuron disease (MMND)--a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    A neuropathological report of Madras type of motor neuron disease (MMND) is presented and the differences from other forms of MND are discussed. An 18-year-old girl presented with nerve deafness and slowly progressive bulbo-spinal muscular atrophy, characteristic of MMND. Post-mortem examination of the spinal cord showed a severe loss of anterior horn cells, prominent dilatation of vessels, diffuse, but sparse sprinkling of microglial cells and lymphocytes, and demyelination and sclerosis of the ventrolateral columns. Neuronal depletion and marked gliosis was noted in the cochlear nucleus on both sides, while other bulbar motor nuclei were also involved. The cochlear nerve showed demyelination and axonal loss. Trigeminal and vestibular ganglia revealed features of ganglionitis. The possibility of an inflammatory aetiology for MMND needs to be considered.
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ranking = 6
keywords = motor
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20/237. Chronic motor axonal neuropathy associated with antibodies monospecific for N-acetylgalactosaminyl GD1a.

    We report on three patients with chronic motor neuropathy who had elevated titers of immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies against N-acetylgalactosaminyl GD1a (GalNAc-GD1a) and normal titers of antibodies against other gangliosides. Presenting with progressive muscular atrophy, fasciculations, and no sensory deficits, the patients had been diagnosed to have motor neuron disease. Electrodiagnostic features were predominantly axonal. Two patients clinically improved after intravenous Ig infusion and cyclophosphamide therapy. Increased titers of IgM antibodies to GalNAc-GD1a were also found in two of 15 patients with multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block but were associated with concomitant rise of anti-GM1 antibodies. These three cases represent a chronic motor axonal neuropathy in which antibody testing for a minor ganglioside was helpful for instituting therapy.
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ranking = 145.29056257079
keywords = chronic motor, motor
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