Cases reported "Motor Neuron Disease"

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1/278. Chronic motor axonal neuropathy: pathological evidence of inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Chronic immune and inflammatory motor neuropathies may resemble motor neuron disease, and the distinction may be particularly difficult if conduction block or GM1 antibodies are absent. The pathology of this axonal type of chronic motor neuropathy has not been characterized except in a few cases associated with paraproteinemia. We describe the clinical, electrophysiological, and pathological findings in a patient with a chronic motor axonal neuropathy, normal immunoelectrophoresis, and no GM1 antibodies. At autopsy the spinal cord was normal with the exception of chromatolytic motor neurons. All the ventral roots were greatly thinned. Of 10 mixed nerves and numerous spinal roots sampled, five showed areas of perineurial, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. There was severe axonal loss in the motor roots that was not as evident in mixed nerves, and the sensory nerves and roots were virtually unaffected. Our findings suggest that a chronic motor axonal neuropathy without paraproteinemia or GM1 antibodies may, in some cases, result from an inflammatory process. ( info)

2/278. Delayed focal involvement of upper motor neurons in the Madras pattern of motor neuron disease.

    We report the case of a young man from the south of india, initially presenting the typical signs of benign monomelic amyotrophy (BMA) in the left upper limb. After several years, the involvement of other limbs and the appearance of bulbar signs suggested the possible diagnosis of the Madras pattern of motor neuron disease (MMND). Serial motor evoked potential (MEP) recordings allowed detection of the onset of a focal involvement of upper motor neurons (UMN) controlling innervation in the originally amyotrophic limb. Therefore, serial MEP recordings can be useful for the early detection of sub-clinical UMN damage in motor neuron disease presenting with pure lower motor neuron (LMN) signs. ( info)

3/278. Chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, responsive to immunoglobulins.

    The association of central and peripheral demyelination was reported previously. Most of the cases refer to central chronic relapsing demyelination with clinical criteria for multiple sclerosis associated with later signs of peripheral nerve involvement. Other authors, described central lesions in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and in guillain-barre syndrome, as a seldom occurrence. We report a patient in which a chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor nervous system demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, was identified. The patient improved after intravenous immunoglobulin suggesting an immune-mediated mechanism. To our knowledge this presentation was not described before. ( info)

4/278. A reversible cause of hypercapnic respiratory failure: lower motor neuronopathy associated with renal cell carcinoma.

    We describe a unique case of a patient with a reversible paraneoplastic motor neuronopathy who presented with hypercapnic respiratory failure. The patient developed progressive respiratory and limb muscle weakness until treated with removal of a renal cell carcinoma, which was followed by a complete resolution of neuromuscular symptoms. The literature of paraneoplastic motor neuronopathies is reviewed, specifically in reference to respiratory failure. ( info)

5/278. motor neuron disease-inclusion dementia presenting as cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration.

    The frontotemporal dementias are a group of relatively new and evolving clinical and pathologic entities. The predominant frontal-temporal atrophy causes a variety of clinical syndromes, usually dominated by disturbances in behavior, mood, and speech. The motor neuron disease-inclusion dementia (MNDID) subtype is characterized by the accumulation of specific intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions with the complete absence of tau immunoreactivity. We present a patient with the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of a highly asymmetric neurodegenerative condition distinguished by limb rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia with an alien limb phenomenon, cortical sensory findings, and limb apraxia. His premorbid diagnosis was cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration but he had the typical histologic features of a frontotemporal dementia of the MNDID subtype. ( info)

6/278. Troyer syndrome: a combination of central brain abnormality and motor neuron disease?

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders consisting of pure and complicated forms. A variant with the additional features of severe atrophy of the small hand muscles, dysarthria, mental retardation, and short stature has been termed Troyer syndrome (MIM#275900) after the name of Old Order amish families suffering from these symptoms. We report here an Austrian family with two individuals who exhibit all the features of Troyer syndrome, and provide additional data on this disorder. Electrophysiological studies showed chronic denervation and reduced motor nerve conduction velocities but normal sensory potentials. Muscle biopsy revealed a neurogenic pattern while the sural nerve was normal on histological examination. brain abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging consisted of a thin corpus callosum with a poorly developed cingulate gyrus and mild periventricular signal hyperintensities. These findings characterize the Troyer syndrome as a disorder of the first and second motor neuron with additional damage in the brain. The morphological features observed in this family may contribute to the grouping and subsequent understanding of complicated forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia, together with similar observations in other, more recently reported families. ( info)

7/278. A novel antineuronal antibody in a motor neuron syndrome associated with breast cancer.

    A 72-year-old woman developed a lower motor neuron syndrome (MNS) 4 months before the appearance of breast cancer. Monoparesis progressed to quadriparesis despite high-dose IV immunoglobulins, plasma exchange, and azathioprine, and high-dose IV methylprednisolone. The patient improved only after the removal of the tumor. MRI demonstrated hyperintensities in the cervical spinal cord. The patient had antibodies that reacted with axonal initial segments and nodes of Ranvier. The findings suggest that in this patient lower MNS may be a paraneoplastic condition associated with breast cancer. ( info)

8/278. Delayed diffuse upper motor neuron syndrome after compressive thoracic myelopathy.

    A 54-year-old man developed progressive spastic paraparesis beginning 2 weeks after a back injury caused by a subacute compressive thoracic myelopathy attributable to a post-traumatic arachnoid cyst. Three to 18 months after surgical decompression of the thoracic arachnoid cyst, the patient developed a diffuse predominantly upper motor neuron syndrome characterized by spastic quadriparesis, pseudobulbar paresis, and pseudobulbar affect. Retrograde corticospinal tract degeneration and upper motor neuron death after spinal cord injury is recognized. This case suggests that focal upper motor neuron injury can occasionally precipitate diffuse upper motor neuron dysfunction. ( info)

9/278. Gallyas- and tau-positive glial structures in motor neuron disease with dementia.

    We have studied Gallyas- and tau-positive glial structures in three autopsied cases of motor neuron disease with dementia (MND-D). Gallyas-positive, tau-immunoreactive thread-like structures in the neuropil and crescent/coiled inclusions in the glial cells were mainly observed in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdaloid nucleus. Double staining using Gallyas staining and carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) immunohistochemistry revealed that some crescent/coiled inclusions occurred in the CA2-immunopositive cytoplasm of the oligodendroglia. Electron microscopic study with the Gallyas-Braak method revealed that the inclusion was a reticular, partly compact mass, containing 15 nm fibrils around round or oval nuclei. Since the regions where these structures appeared exhibited neuronal loss with gliosis, these data suggest that a cytoskeletal abnormality involving tau protein in glia might be associated with the degenerative process of MND-D. ( info)

10/278. Fronto-temporal dementia and motor neuron disease: a neuropsychological study.

    The neuropsychological follow-up study of a 58-year-old man suffering from Motor Neuron Disease (ALS/MND) and Fronto-Temporal Dementia (FTD) is reported. Neuromuscular signs first appeared at the age of 51 and slowly progressed to late bulbar involvement; behavioural symptoms of the frontal type first appeared around age 53; lastly, several neuropsychological symptoms suggestive of worsening temporal involvement supervened at age 57. Our patient died at 59 of respiratory failure with the classic clinical and neuroradiological picture of FTD. A short discussion addresses the controversial issue of the coupling of ALS/MND with Dementia and its possible interpretation as the expression of a chance association of relatively common diseases, versus that of a single multifaceted disease. The role of a detailed neuropsychological assessment is highlighted, within the context of increasingly specific diagnostic criteria for FTD. ( info)
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