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1/4. Intra-oral dirofilaria repens infection: report of seven cases.

    Cutaneous dirofilariasis usually affects animals such as cats and dogs which are known to be the natural host of Dirofilaria. dirofilariasis displays a worldwide distribution. Certain geographic regions account for the majority of reported cases. South-eastern united states, australia and europe have been identified as endemic regions (1, 2). However, new endemic areas are arising with increased awareness in African and Asian regions. Out of about 40 different species of Dirofilaria only a few species are commonly known to infect man, namely Dirofilaria immitus, D. tenices and D. repens. Human infection occurs when a human becomes a blood meal of an infected arthropod vector and on accidental entering of the worm. Rarely this zoonotic infection affects the oral mucosa (3). Man is the dead end of this parasite. Since the human body is an abnormal environment for the parasite, the development of the larvae is inhibited by means of retardation of sexual maturity. Lesions are presented as single non-tender subcutaneous nodules, and most patients are asymptomatic. diagnosis is established by H&E sections prepared from excised nodules. In a majority of the cases, only a single worm either a male or a female could be identified. The worm is usually dead and degenerated with a massive inflammatory cell infiltration. Seven new cases presented as intra-oral nodules with their clinicopathological correlation are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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2/4. in vitro fabrication of bioartificial mucosa for reconstruction of oral mucosa: basic research and clinical application.

    Bioartificial mucosa can be fabricated with living cells in vitro and used for mucosal grafting. In this report, we describe our culturing methods for preparation of bioartificial mucosa and its morphological characteristics. Bioartificial mucosa has bilayered components, namely, mucosal epithelium and submucosal tissue. Submucosal tissue was composed of fibroblasts and type I collagen lattice. Mucosal epithelium was formed by an epithelial segment grafted on the submucosal tissue surface. Between epithelial and submucosal tissues, basement membrane was observed under a transmission electron microscope. In animal experiments, the bioartificial mucosa was well vascularized and survived completely without immunological rejections. Based on the findings from these animal experiments, we applied this bioartificial mucosa to humans and succeeded in reconstructing their mucosal defects. We also present an overview of the problems relevant to the use of such methods.
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ranking = 2
keywords = animal
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3/4. Focal mucinosis in dogs: seven cases and review of cutaneous mucinoses of man and animals.

    Seven dogs had one or more asymptomatic nodules, papules, or plaques on the skin or oral mucosa. The primary histologic feature was the accumulation of excess mucin within the dermis or submucosa. Based upon the clinical presentation and the histopathologic changes, it was proposed that these lesions represent the canine analogue of focal mucinosis in man, and that the same name be applied to the lesion in dogs. The criteria for the diagnosis of focal mucinosis were: (1) the presence of a single (rarely multiple) papule, nodule, or plaque which may be firm, rubbery, or soft, (2) the accumulation of mucin which disrupts and separates collagen fibers, (3) mild to extensive fibroblast proliferation, and (4) a mild mononuclear cell infiltration. The mucinoses of man and animals were reviewed.
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ranking = 5
keywords = animal
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4/4. Oral myiasis. A case report.

    myiasis is a disease commonly seen in animals, especially sheep and cattle. The condition is rare in man. A patient with a neglected fractured mandible with superimposed myiasis is reported.
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keywords = animal
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