Cases reported "Mouth Diseases"

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1/100. The dentist's role in end-of-life care.

    dentists and dental specialists have much to offer in ensuring proper pain management in end-of-life care for terminally ill patients. As the population of the united states ages and devastating disease processes continue to affect many, the need for oral comfort care measures will further increase. In an ideal situation, the dentist will be among those consulted in advance of beginning therapeutic regimens that have significant oral side-effects or for cases in which oral care after treatment has begun is accompanied by greatly increased risk. The objectives for dentists caring for terminally ill patients include ensuring comfort, eliminating sites of infection or potential infection, understanding the patient's preferences enhancing oral function, and, when desired, protecting self-esteem through esthetic maintenance. The provision of adequate pain management and comfort care is an unequivocal ethical obligation for the benefit of these patients. dentists have a further ethical obligation to share their knowledge with physicians and patients to set a higher standard for comfort care for the terminally ill.
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2/100. Assessment of the radiographic image: recognition of abnormal features.

    Radiographs, due to their ability to pass through materials differentially, are used in dental practice to obtain information that is not available by other means. Recognition of the presence of a variation from normal is the first step to accurate interpretation of abnormalities. This article presents an outline of a method for examining radiographs in order to recognize that an abnormality is present, and to learn from the visual information some of the characteristics of the abnormality. A number of clinical examples are used to illustrate the conclusions that we can draw from the radiographic changes.
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3/100. Acute (toxic) epidermal necrolysis. Report of a case.

    A case of acute (toxic) epidermal necrolysis is reported in the dental literature for the first time. This severe, life-threatening mucocutaneous syndrome resembles severely scalded skin. Sloughing vesiculobullous oral lesions are a frequent component. staphylococcus aureus and drug reactions may cause separate entities presenting clinically as acute epidermal necrolysis. This case of drug-induced epidermal necrolysis ina child was successfully treated with methicillin and hydrocortisone.
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4/100. oral manifestations of Schimmelpenning syndrome: case report and review of literature.

    Schimmelpenning syndrome (SS) is characterised by specific skin manifestations, skeletal defects, and central nervous system abnormalities. Here, the SS is briefly reviewed, and the oral and dental manifestations are described in a patient whose medical findings were previously published and included severe hypophosphatemic rickets. Significant oral and dental features included papillomatous lesions of the gingiva, hemihyperplasia (hemihypertrophy) of the tongue, bone cysts, aplasia of teeth, enlarged pulp chambers, hypoplastic or absent enamel, and an odontodysplasia-like permanent tooth.
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5/100. Medico-dental dilemmas.

    patients with a variety of diseases in the oro-facial region are frequently confused when trying to decide from which of the professions of medicine and dentistry to seek treatment. Furthermore, during the process of arriving at a diagnosis, numerous practitioners and specialists in both professions may be called in for consultation, thus adding to the dilemma. Four cases are reported in this article to illustrate the problem, and some conclusions are drawn as to how it may be minimized albeit not completely solved.
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6/100. Complete dentures and the associated soft tissues.

    Some of the conditions of the soft tissues related to complete dentures encountered during a period of 25 years at a university clinic were presented and discussed from the standpoint of the clinical prosthodontist. During this time, over 1,000 denture patients were treated each year. For some conditions, a method of management was offered with treatment by sound prosthodontic principles rather than unneccessary medication. That denture fabrication involves much more than mere mechanical procedures is an understatement. Complete dentures are foreign objects in the oral cavity that are accepted and tolerated by the tissue to a degree that is surprising. As prosthodontists, we can gain satisfaction from the realization that the incidence of oral cancer due to dentures is less than extremely low. At the same time, we must be ever mindful of the statement by Sheppard and associates. "Complete dentures are not the innocuous devices we often think they are." Every dentist must remember that one of his greatest missions is to serve as a detection agency for cancer. The information discussed indicates (1) the need for careful examination of the mouth, (2) the value of a rest period of 8 hours every day for the supporting tissues, and (3) the importance of regular recall visits for denture patients. Robinson stated that while the dental laboratory technician can be trained to aid the dentist in the fabrication of prosthetic devices, his lack of knowledge of reactions and diseases of the oral tissues limits him to an auxiliary role. Complete prosthodontics is a highly specialized health service that greatly affects the health, welfare, and well-being of the patient. It can be rendered only by the true professional who is educated in the biomedical sciences.
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7/100. Allergic response to stainless steel wire.

    A review of the literature indicates that an allergic response to stainless steel is rare, although nickel is a common allergen and is encountered continually in daily life. An allergic reaction could occur at a most inopportune time. Rational approaches in management of an allergic response to stainless steel appear to be either: (1) wire removal and symptomatic therapy, (2) application of fixation with other substances, or (3) administration of steroids with necessary stainless steel immobilization left in place. The report suggests the need for research to determine the chromium content or chromium-nickel ratio that would eliminate allergic manifestations to the nickel component in wrought or cast base metal dental appliances.
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8/100. Delayed and immediate hypersensitivity reactions associated with the use of amalgam.

    hypersensitivity to the constituents of dental amalgam is uncommon. When it occurs it typically manifests itself as a lichenoid reaction involving a delayed, type IV, cell-mediated hypersensitivity response. Rarely, a more acute and generalised response can occur involving both the oral mucosa and skin. We describe two cases that illustrate the presentation and management of these two types of reaction.
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9/100. Congenital neutropenia. Report of a case and a biorationale for dental management.

    Congenital neutropenia is characterized by a marked decrease in or lack of circulating PMN's in children with no prior history of drug intake. The neutropenia is persistent and the clinical course is one of early onset of severe, recurrent, and eventually fatal infections. bone marrow studies show a maturation arrest of neutrophilic precursors. Because of their greatly increased susceptibility to infection, patients with congenital neutropenia present a difficult dental management problem. A case of congenital neutropenia has been presented, as well as a biorationale for dental treatment. On the basis of reports in the literature, the following recommendations for the management of patients with congenital neutropenia are made: 1. The prevention and control of infection and the interception of dental disease before surgical intervention becomes necessary should be the overriding considerations in the management of patients with congenital neutropenia. 2. The carious breakdown of teeth should be prevented by the daily application of a 0.4 per cent stannous fluoride gel in addition to oral hygiene and limitation of sucrose intake. 3. Periodontal therapy should be palliative only, since alveolar bone loss is progressive despite frequent oral hygiene instruction and prophylaxis. The goal of periodontal therapy for patients with congenital neutropenia should therefore be a decrease in gingival inflammation to make the patient's mouth more comfortable and to slow down alveolar bone loss. Periodontal surgery is contraindicated. 4. bacteremia and subsequent septicemia should be prevented since a minor infection can become life threatening in patients with congenital neutropenia. The patient should rinse for 30 seconds and the gingival sulci should be irrigated with a phenolated antiseptic mouthwash prior to all dental manipulations of the soft tissue. This will significantly reduce the incidence of bacteremia. 5. Surgery should be avoided if at all possible because of the high risk of post-operative infection. All surgery sholld be performed in the hospital, and the patient should be given antibiotics as determined by his physician. Primary closure should be done with fine polyglycolic acid sutures to reduce the chance of infection. If postoperative infection can be prevented, wound healing will progress normally despite the complete absence of PMN's.
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10/100. Sublingual enteric duplication cyst.

    We describe a case of enteric duplication arising from the floor of the mouth and base of the tongue of a 7-year-old child. This mass was asymptomatic and was detected on routine dental examination. The unusual location, possible etiology, and a brief review of the literature are discussed.
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