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1/3. Oral lichenoid drug reaction by lithium in a patient with bipolar disorder.

    bipolar disorder (BD) is a psychiatric disease characterized by recurrent and alternated episodes of depression and mania. For the treatment of BD, anticonvulsants drugs as lithium, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine can be used. These drugs can be associated with potential adverse effects: weight gain, tremors, thyroid abnormalities, and cognitive, gastrointestinal, cardiac or dermatological problems. We describe a case of BD with oral lichenoid drug reaction probably because of the mood stabilizers.
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2/3. Oropharyngeal angioedema associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

    angioedema that occurs in the head and neck may be a serious and possibly life-threatening condition. We present two cases of oropharyngeal angioedema associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with no underlying renal failure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibiting agents are now commonly used to control hypertension. Treatment of acquired angioedema is directed first at protecting the airway by careful observation, intubation, or if necessary, tracheostomy. The causative agent is withdrawn, and the patient is treated with antihistamines and steroids until the acute episode resolves. Although not used in our patients, the treatment of angioedema with subcutaneous epinephrine has been described. As more patients are treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, it becomes essential for the otolaryngologist to become aware of this potentially life-threatening complication.
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3/3. The acro-osteolysis (Hadju-Cheney) syndrome. review of the literature and report of a case.

    acro-osteolysis ( Hadju - Cheney ) syndrome is a rare disorder of bone metabolism characterized by progressive destruction of the distal phalangeal bone, curvature of the spine, aplasia of the facial sinuses, and persistence of the cranial sutures. The purpose of this manuscript is to focus on the description of the oro-facial and dental manifestations of the disorder.
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