Cases reported "Movement Disorders"

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1/143. Osmotic demyelination syndrome with two-phase movement disorders: case report.

    Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is characterized by regions of demyelination throughout the brain, which are most prominent in the pons. This demyelinating disease is associated with electrolyte disturbances and typically occurs in patients who are alcoholic or malnourished. movement disorders are not frequently recognized in patients with ODS. This report describes a 22-year-old woman with ODS after correction of profound hyponatremia. The main neurologic symptom was two-phase movement disorder. First, she had acute onset dystonia, then the movement disorder transformed to generalized rigidity and tremors in the delayed second phase. magnetic resonance imaging in the first phase revealed demyelinating lesions in the central pons, bilateral thalami and basal ganglia. In the second phase, the previous myelinolysis had been partially resolved. The clinical course of the two-phase movement disorder did not correlate with the resolving feature of neuroradiologic findings. During the second-phase movement disorder, the patient had a good response to propranolol and trihexyphenidyl.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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2/143. 18Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18FDG) PET scan of the brain in type IV 3-methylglutaconic aciduria: clinical and MRI correlations.

    The clinical, 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan characteristics of four patients diagnosed to have 3-methylglutaconic aciduria were reviewed retrospectively. The disease has a characteristic clinical pattern. The initial presentations were developmental delay, hypotonia, and severe failure to thrive. Later, progressive encephalopathy with rigidity and quadriparesis were observed, followed by severe dystonia and choreoathetosis. Finally, the patients became severely demented and bedridden. The 18FDG PET scans showed progressive disease, explaining the neurological status. It could be classified into three stages. Stage I: absent 18FDG uptake in the heads of the caudate, mild decreased thalamic and cerebellar metabolism. Stage II: absent uptake in the anterior half and posterior quarter of the putamina, mild-moderate decreased uptake in the cerebral cortex more prominently in the parieto-temporal lobes. Progressive decreased thalamic and cerebellar uptake. Stage III: absent uptake in the putamina and severe decreased cortical uptake consistent with brain atrophy and further decrease uptake in the cerebellum. The presence of both structural and functional changes in the brain, demonstrated by the combined use of MRI and 18FDG PET scan, with good clinical correlation, make the two techniques complementary in the imaging evaluation of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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3/143. Facial dyskinesia induced by auditory stimulation: a report of four cases.

    INTRODUCTION: The Vibroacoustic Disease (VAD) is an occupational pathology induced by long-term (>10 yr) exposure to large pressure amplitude (> or = 90 dB SPL) and low frequency (< or = 500 Hz) noise. During studies contributing to the characterization of VAD, abnormal facial movements induced by repetitive auditory stimuli were observed in one individual employed as an aeronautical mechanic. The goal of this study was to investigate the existence of movement disorders triggered by auditory stimuli in a group of VAD-diagnosed patients. methods: Sixty VAD patients received auditory and median nerve stimulation. Simultaneously, EEG monitoring was performed. RESULTS: Abnormal myoclonus movements were triggered by auditory stimuli in four patients. EEG recordings were normal in all 60 patients. Stimulation of the median nerves did not trigger any abnormal movements. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that this facial dyskinesia has a subcortical origin.
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ranking = 78.188838340029
keywords = dyskinesia
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4/143. movement disorders following nonfunctional neurosurgery.

    OBJECT: knowledge is scarce about movement disorders that follow neurosurgical operations other than functional stereotactic surgery. The cases of 14 patients who suffered from movement disorders secondary to craniocerebral or spinal surgery are analyzed. None of these patients was initially treated by any of the authors. methods: Twelve patients underwent surgery for cerebral diseases. Nine of these patients harbored tumors and three patients had neurovascular disorders. Two patients underwent spinal surgery for cervicothoracic ependymoma or for multiple cervical disc herniations. Twelve of the 14 patients had immediate postoperative side effects such as hemiparesis, ataxia, and somnolence. In all but two patients, movement disorders became manifest only after a delay. Dystonic movement disorders developed in eight patients, unilateral tremors in three patients, unilateral facial myokymia in one patient, and hemichorea-hemiballism in two patients. The mean delay of onset for tremor was 5 weeks and that for dystonic movement disorders was 5.5 months. movement disorders were transient in three patients; however, they were persistent in 11 patients at a mean follow-up period of 5 years. These movement disorders caused marked persistent disability in four patients. Lesions of the contralateral striatum were identified in patients with dystonic syndromes and lesions of the dentatothalamic outflow in patients with tremors. In three patients who had postoperative basal ganglia lesions after partial removal of astrocytomas, tumor regrowth was later documented. Medical treatment in patients with persistent movement disorders rendered only limited benefit. Two patients improved with botulin injections. In one patient postoperative hemidystonia was alleviated by contralateral thalamotomy. CONCLUSIONS: Dystonic syndromes and tremors are the most common movement disorders that occur after craniocerebral and spinal surgery. Postoperative movement disorders can lead to various degrees of functional disability. The pathoanatomical correlations are similar to those described in other patients with secondary movement disorders.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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5/143. Hyperekplexia in a patient with a brainstem vascular anomaly.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe a patient with a clinical picture suggestive of idiopathic hyperekplexia (IH), who was later found to harbour a subtle brainstem vascular anomaly. PATIENT: A 35-year-old man, 4 years earlier, developed sudden jumping and falling in response to unexpected sensory stimuli. RESULTS: Neurological examination was normal. electromyography showed an excessively large and non-habituating motor startle response. There were no mutations of the alpha1 subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor which cause hereditary hyperekplexia. Although all these findings were consistent with a diagnosis of IH, a blink reflex study showed an enhanced recovery curve suggestive of a brainstem lesion. A detailed MRI study revealed a subtle vascular anomaly involving the lower brainstem. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of sporadic hyperekplexia related to a brainstem vascular anomaly. Subtle damage to the brainstem should always be excluded in patients with sporadic hyperekplexia, regardless of the coexistence of additional clear-cut neurological symptoms.
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ranking = 0.0032756969070445
keywords = idiopathic
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6/143. Neuronal activity in the basal ganglia in patients with generalized dystonia and hemiballismus.

    Microelectrode recording was performed in the basal ganglia of 3 patients with generalized dystonia and 1 patient with hemiballismus secondary to a brainstem hemorrhage. Neuronal activity was recorded from the internal and external segments of the globus pallidus and assessed for mean discharge rate and pattern of spontaneous activity. The responses of neurons in the internal segment of the globus pallidus to passive and active movements were also evaluated. Mean discharge rates of neurons in both segments of the pallidum in patients with dystonia and the patient with hemiballismus were considerably lower than those reported for patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In addition, the pattern of spontaneous neuronal activity was highly irregular, occurring in intermittent grouped discharges separated by periods of pauses. Although receptive fields in the dystonia patients were widened and less specific than those reported in normal monkeys, neuronal responses to movement were uncommon in the hemiballismus patient. Before surgery, patients with dystonia experienced abnormal posturing and involuntary movements. Coactivation of agonist-antagonist muscle groups was observed both at rest and during the performance of simple movements. After pallidotomy there was a significant reduction in the involuntary movement associated with these disorders and a more normal pattern of electromyographic activity during rest and movement. Given the improvement in dystonic and hemiballistic movements in these patients after ablation of the sensorimotor portion of the internal segment of the globus pallidus, we suggest that pallidotomy can be an effective treatment for patients with dystonia and also for patients with medically intractable hemiballismus. Based on the finding of decreased neuronal discharge rates in pallidal neurons, we propose that physiologically dystonia most closely resembles a hyperkinetic movement disorder. A model for dystonia is proposed that incorporates the observed changes in the rate and pattern of neuronal activity in the pallidum with data from neuroimaging with positron emission tomography and 2-deoxyglucose studies.
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ranking = 11.003275696907
keywords = dystonia, idiopathic
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7/143. motor neuron disease-inclusion dementia presenting as cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration.

    The frontotemporal dementias are a group of relatively new and evolving clinical and pathologic entities. The predominant frontal-temporal atrophy causes a variety of clinical syndromes, usually dominated by disturbances in behavior, mood, and speech. The motor neuron disease-inclusion dementia (MNDID) subtype is characterized by the accumulation of specific intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions with the complete absence of tau immunoreactivity. We present a patient with the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of a highly asymmetric neurodegenerative condition distinguished by limb rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia with an alien limb phenomenon, cortical sensory findings, and limb apraxia. His premorbid diagnosis was cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration but he had the typical histologic features of a frontotemporal dementia of the MNDID subtype.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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8/143. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations and movement disorders.

    A series of six patients with movement disorders associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is reported. The AVMs were classified according to the Spetzler-Martin classification as grade V (one patient), grade IV (four patients), and as grade III (one patient). One patient had action-induced hemidystonia caused by a contralateral frontoparietal AVM which compressed the putamen and was supplied partially by enlarged lenticulostriate arteries. Two patients presented with unilateral cortical tremor associated with contralateral high-frontal cortical/subcortical AVMs sparing the basal ganglia. Another patient developed hemidystonia and hemichorea-hemiballism after bleeding of a contralateral temporooccipital AVM and subsequent ischemia. Two patients had focal dystonia after thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhage from AVMs. Five patients were operated on. The movement disorder was abolished in one patient postoperatively. Different mechanisms were identified that are relevant for the development of AVM-related movement disorders: mass effect, diaschisis, local parenchymal altered cerebral blood flow, and hemorrhagic or ischemic structural lesions.
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ranking = 3
keywords = dystonia
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9/143. A video review of the diagnosis of psychogenic gait: appendix and commentary.

    The gait and other clinical features of 22 patients presenting to our hospital over the last 10 years are shown on video. In 12 patients, a diagnosis of psychogenic gait was made; in the remainder, the gait abnormality was the result of a neurologic disease. Psychogenic gaits are compared and contrasted with "organic" gaits. In one patient, the psychogenic gait occurred in the setting of a neurologic disease. The "traditional" approach to psychogenic gait, attempting to exclude underlying neurologic and psychiatric disease and seeking evidence for primary and secondary gain, was found to be of limited value. More useful were the features of the gait itself, in particular, exaggerated effort, extreme slowness, variability throughout the day, unusual or uneconomic postures, collapses, convulsive tremors, and distractibility; certain aspects of the history were also helpful. A list of comments is provided. The diagnosis of psychogenic gait, particularly in the elderly, remains fraught with hazard, and a balance has to be sought between subjecting an anxious patient to needless investigations and yet not losing sight of the fact that the patient may be elaborating on symptoms of genuine disease. The bizarre gait of some neurologic disorders, particularly dystonia and chorea, may be a pitfall for the unwary.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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10/143. Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration with Balint's syndrome.

    Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD) is a neurodegenerative dementia characterized by asymmetric parkinsonism, ideomotor apraxia, myoclonus, dystonia, and the alien hand syndrome. This report describes a patient with CBGD who developed Balint's syndrome with simultanagnosia, oculomotor apraxia, and optic ataxia.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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