Cases reported "Movement Disorders"

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1/148. Osmotic demyelination syndrome with two-phase movement disorders: case report.

    Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is characterized by regions of demyelination throughout the brain, which are most prominent in the pons. This demyelinating disease is associated with electrolyte disturbances and typically occurs in patients who are alcoholic or malnourished. movement disorders are not frequently recognized in patients with ODS. This report describes a 22-year-old woman with ODS after correction of profound hyponatremia. The main neurologic symptom was two-phase movement disorder. First, she had acute onset dystonia, then the movement disorder transformed to generalized rigidity and tremors in the delayed second phase. magnetic resonance imaging in the first phase revealed demyelinating lesions in the central pons, bilateral thalami and basal ganglia. In the second phase, the previous myelinolysis had been partially resolved. The clinical course of the two-phase movement disorder did not correlate with the resolving feature of neuroradiologic findings. During the second-phase movement disorder, the patient had a good response to propranolol and trihexyphenidyl.
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2/148. A novel method for locomotion training.

    This article describes a novel therapeutic system for locomotion training and learning for patients with a wide range of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. The technique embraces the notion that locomotion therapy should be goal oriented and task specific. The task specificity includes a partial weight-bearing device that permits the posture/equilibrium, movement, and weight-bearing components of gait function to operate concurrently, even in patients with serious deficits. In addition, it allows interaction with therapists and others to facilitate locomotion control, particularly during the early stages of gait therapy. Neurobiological bases for this technique and early clinical results are discussed, and two case studies of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are presented. Although well-designed efficacy studies are needed, clearly this therapeutic approach to locomotor disorders among TBI patients meets the various criteria for recovery of gait function established in this article.
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3/148. movement disorders following nonfunctional neurosurgery.

    OBJECT: knowledge is scarce about movement disorders that follow neurosurgical operations other than functional stereotactic surgery. The cases of 14 patients who suffered from movement disorders secondary to craniocerebral or spinal surgery are analyzed. None of these patients was initially treated by any of the authors. methods: Twelve patients underwent surgery for cerebral diseases. Nine of these patients harbored tumors and three patients had neurovascular disorders. Two patients underwent spinal surgery for cervicothoracic ependymoma or for multiple cervical disc herniations. Twelve of the 14 patients had immediate postoperative side effects such as hemiparesis, ataxia, and somnolence. In all but two patients, movement disorders became manifest only after a delay. Dystonic movement disorders developed in eight patients, unilateral tremors in three patients, unilateral facial myokymia in one patient, and hemichorea-hemiballism in two patients. The mean delay of onset for tremor was 5 weeks and that for dystonic movement disorders was 5.5 months. movement disorders were transient in three patients; however, they were persistent in 11 patients at a mean follow-up period of 5 years. These movement disorders caused marked persistent disability in four patients. Lesions of the contralateral striatum were identified in patients with dystonic syndromes and lesions of the dentatothalamic outflow in patients with tremors. In three patients who had postoperative basal ganglia lesions after partial removal of astrocytomas, tumor regrowth was later documented. Medical treatment in patients with persistent movement disorders rendered only limited benefit. Two patients improved with botulin injections. In one patient postoperative hemidystonia was alleviated by contralateral thalamotomy. CONCLUSIONS: Dystonic syndromes and tremors are the most common movement disorders that occur after craniocerebral and spinal surgery. Postoperative movement disorders can lead to various degrees of functional disability. The pathoanatomical correlations are similar to those described in other patients with secondary movement disorders.
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keywords = tremor
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4/148. Adverse effect of dopamine agonist therapy in a patient with motor-intentional neglect.

    Studies in animals and humans report dopamine agonists can improve neglect. Because dopamine deficit reduces intention to act, it has been suspected the dopamine agonist bromocriptine would improve deficient hemispatial intention. Thus, the effect of bromocriptine on line bisection was examined in a patient with neglect and failure of the action-intention system. The 58-year-old patient had left-sided neglect from a right cerebral infarction involving both cortical and subcortical (striatal) structures. It was determined that neglect on a line bisection task was attributable to a motor-intentional bias by testing under congruous and incongruous video monitoring. Testing sessions were held before starting bromocriptine, on 20 mg/d, and after stopping bromocriptine. The patient's ipsilesional bias increased on bromocriptine, and improved when bromocriptine was stopped. bromocriptine may worsen neglect if putamenal receptors are damaged. dopamine agonists may activate the normal hemisphere, increasing an intentional bias. Clinicians using dopaminergic pharmacotherapy should assess patients for this possible adverse effect.
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ranking = 1.6309453212671
keywords = intention, action
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5/148. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations and movement disorders.

    A series of six patients with movement disorders associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is reported. The AVMs were classified according to the Spetzler-Martin classification as grade V (one patient), grade IV (four patients), and as grade III (one patient). One patient had action-induced hemidystonia caused by a contralateral frontoparietal AVM which compressed the putamen and was supplied partially by enlarged lenticulostriate arteries. Two patients presented with unilateral cortical tremor associated with contralateral high-frontal cortical/subcortical AVMs sparing the basal ganglia. Another patient developed hemidystonia and hemichorea-hemiballism after bleeding of a contralateral temporooccipital AVM and subsequent ischemia. Two patients had focal dystonia after thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhage from AVMs. Five patients were operated on. The movement disorder was abolished in one patient postoperatively. Different mechanisms were identified that are relevant for the development of AVM-related movement disorders: mass effect, diaschisis, local parenchymal altered cerebral blood flow, and hemorrhagic or ischemic structural lesions.
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keywords = tremor, action
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6/148. A video review of the diagnosis of psychogenic gait: appendix and commentary.

    The gait and other clinical features of 22 patients presenting to our hospital over the last 10 years are shown on video. In 12 patients, a diagnosis of psychogenic gait was made; in the remainder, the gait abnormality was the result of a neurologic disease. Psychogenic gaits are compared and contrasted with "organic" gaits. In one patient, the psychogenic gait occurred in the setting of a neurologic disease. The "traditional" approach to psychogenic gait, attempting to exclude underlying neurologic and psychiatric disease and seeking evidence for primary and secondary gain, was found to be of limited value. More useful were the features of the gait itself, in particular, exaggerated effort, extreme slowness, variability throughout the day, unusual or uneconomic postures, collapses, convulsive tremors, and distractibility; certain aspects of the history were also helpful. A list of comments is provided. The diagnosis of psychogenic gait, particularly in the elderly, remains fraught with hazard, and a balance has to be sought between subjecting an anxious patient to needless investigations and yet not losing sight of the fact that the patient may be elaborating on symptoms of genuine disease. The bizarre gait of some neurologic disorders, particularly dystonia and chorea, may be a pitfall for the unwary.
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keywords = tremor
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7/148. Patterns of motor control reorganization in a patient with mirror movements.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore motor control reorganization in a 40-year-old, left-handed patient with perinatally acquired mirror movements. methods: We performed simultaneous bilateral recordings of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) following focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (fTMS) and of central silent period (cSP) during unilateral voluntary contraction in abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles. RESULTS: For both muscles the MEP study showed bilateral fast-conducting corticospinal projections from the right undamaged hemisphere, and residual contralateral projections from the left hemisphere. The cSP findings differed in the two muscles: the mirror phenomenon was bilateral in the ADM, but present only on the right side in the APB muscles; the mirror activity of right ADM and APB muscles was inhibited only by fTMS of the ipsilateral right motor cortex; the mirror phenomenon in the left ADM muscle was inhibited only by fTMS of the contralateral right motor cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Mirror movements of right APB and ADM muscles were sustained by the ipsilateral connections from the undamaged motor cortex, while the mirror phenomenon in the left ADM muscle could be explained by hypothesizing a bilateral activation of motor cortices. This previously unreported electrophysiological picture demonstrates that different patterns of motor control may realize after perinatal cerebral lesions, even in different distal muscles of the same patient.
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8/148. Clinical report of three patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and movement disorders.

    neurologic manifestations are rarely described in hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). We describe three patients with HH and movement disorders. Patient 1, a 69-year-old man, had a 13-year history of disabling cerebellar syndrome, action tremor and myoclonus, and secondary dementia. Patient 2 was a 40-year-old man with a 9-year history of cerebellar syndrome, head and arm tremor, and cervical dystonia. Patient 3, a 75-year-old woman, had a 5-year history of rapidly disabling parkinsonian syndrome unresponsive to levodopa. The diagnosis of HH was established in the three patients by iron tests, evidence of a C282Y mutation, and, in two patients, by liver biopsy. High-field T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense signals in hemispheric white matter in patient 1, cerebellar atrophy in patient 2, and cerebellar and cerebral atrophy in patient 3 and no significant hypointense signals in the three patients. Phlebotomies and symptomatic treatments did not change the course of the disease. Our cases are compared with the five previously reported observations of HH with movement disorders. This rare association is one cause of the chronic acquired non-Wilsonian hepatocerebral degeneration syndromes and represents a separate entity from aceruloplasminemia. The pathophysiologic mechanism of movement disorders in HH is unresolved. No hepatic insufficiency and portosystemic encephalopathy is evidenced in our cases, whereas the putative role of abnormal iron load remains to be ascertained. HH should be investigated more systematically in patients with movement disorders.
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keywords = tremor, action
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9/148. Involuntary movements after anterior cerebral artery territory infarction.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: patients with anterior cerebral artery territory infarction presenting with involuntary movements have rarely been described in the literature. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: The author reports 9 such patients: 3 with asterixis, 5 with hemiparkinsonism (tremor, rigidity, hypokinesia), and 1 with both. Asterixis developed in the acute stage in patients with minimal arm weakness, whereas parkinsonism was usually observed after the motor dysfunction improved in patients with initially severe limb weakness. Asterixis correlated with small lesions preferentially involving the prefrontal area; parkinsonism is related to relatively large lesions involving the supplementary motor area. CONCLUSIONS: anterior cerebral artery territory infarction should be included in the differential diagnosis of asterixis and hemiparkinsonism.
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keywords = tremor
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10/148. Treatment of phenothiazine induced bulbar persistent dyskinesia with deanol acetamidobenzoate.

    The late manifestation of neuroleptic-induced dyskinesia (persistent dyskinesia) is an irreversible complication of long-term treatment that is poorly understood and difficult to treat. Recently, a theory of dopamine receptor hypersensitivity in the dopaminergic-cholinergic system has suggested an explanation of choreiform movements and, thus, an implication for the management of persistent dyskinesia. The case presented is that of bulbar persistent dyskinesia in a patient who had been prescribed a phenothiazine derivative for eleven years; his symptoms improved with the use of deanol, which probably converts to acetylcholine after crossing the blood brain barrier. This improvement suggests that deanol may shift the neuroleptic-induced dopaminergic-cholinergic system unbalance toward equilibrium by matching predominant dopaminergic effect or by enhancing deficient cholinergic action in the dopaminergic-cholinergic system. This isolated finding needs to be confirmed by more research in neuropharmacology.
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