Cases reported "Movement Disorders"

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1/37. Hypotonia, congenital nystagmus, ataxia, and abnormal auditory brainstem responses: a report on the first white patient.

    A white Italian boy, aged 5 years and 8 months, is reported with failure to thrive, hypotonia, truncal ataxia, psychomotor retardation, and congenital horizontal pendular nystagmus with only waves I and II on auditory brainstem responses. Our patient's clinical picture resembles that previously reported in 10 male Oriental patients. He did not manifest spastic diplegia by the age of 2 years, as did the subjects reported in the literature, but knee-jerk hyperreflexia was evident at the most recent clinical reevaluation. Serial brain MRI studies revealed a cystic brain lesion and peritrigonal hyperintensities with no brainstem abnormalities. To date, no other child with a similar syndrome has been described either in europe or in America. The clinical features of this condition are consistent and characteristic. A definitive diagnosis is achieved by demonstrating the absence of all waves following wave I or wave II on auditory brainstem responses as early as 3 months of age. Due to the predominance of males, the occurrence in siblings, the early age at onset, the non-progressive course, and the characteristic auditory brainstem response findings, the syndrome may have a genetic origin and be attributable to a dysgenetic brainstem lesion.
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2/37. Facial dyskinesia induced by auditory stimulation: a report of four cases.

    INTRODUCTION: The Vibroacoustic disease (VAD) is an occupational pathology induced by long-term (>10 yr) exposure to large pressure amplitude (> or = 90 dB SPL) and low frequency (< or = 500 Hz) noise. During studies contributing to the characterization of VAD, abnormal facial movements induced by repetitive auditory stimuli were observed in one individual employed as an aeronautical mechanic. The goal of this study was to investigate the existence of movement disorders triggered by auditory stimuli in a group of VAD-diagnosed patients. methods: Sixty VAD patients received auditory and median nerve stimulation. Simultaneously, EEG monitoring was performed. RESULTS: Abnormal myoclonus movements were triggered by auditory stimuli in four patients. EEG recordings were normal in all 60 patients. Stimulation of the median nerves did not trigger any abnormal movements. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that this facial dyskinesia has a subcortical origin.
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3/37. Convulsive-like movements in brainstem stroke.

    BACKGROUND: Involuntary convulsive-like movements sometimes occur in patients with brainstem strokes. These movements vary in nature, frequency, and trigger, including fasciculation-like, shivering, jerky, tonic-clonic, and intermittent shaking movements. Some are interpreted as decerebrate postures or seizures. It is important to recognize this type of motor phenomenon since it may be a diagnostic clue for early diagnosis and treatment of brainstem strokes. DESIGN: Case report and review of the literature observation: A 72-year-old-man presented with impaired consciousness and jerks of the upper limbs mimicking seizures. These episodes consisted of brief clonic contractions of the proximal and distal upper extremities. They were observed in paroxysms lasting for 3 to 5 seconds. magnetic resonance imaging showed large midpontine infarction. magnetic resonance angiography revealed the absence of basilar artery blood flow. No seizure discharges were observed in the electroencephalogram. Anticoagulation with intravenous heparin was started. Two days after admission, the patient had a cardiac arrest and died. We review the frequency and nature of convulsive-like movements in brainstem stroke in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: Movements associated with brainstem lesions are not easily differentiated from convulsions. Unexpected onset and inexperience of the observers limit the characterization of this phenomenon. Convulsive-like movements in brainstem stroke may occur more frequently than reported. Early detection of this motor phenomenon may have practical implications.
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4/37. music therapy for children with rett syndrome.

    The rett syndrome is good reactivity for sound and music. We enforced active music therapy (MT) individual session to patients with rett syndrome. The patients were 4, 5 and 6-year-old. The active music therapy and individual session of 30 min/week were performed. It was recorded in video and description, and using the original evaluation list, six items of fact. On largest problem that is hand operation with purpose in childhood of rett syndrome, we recorded the longest duration and frequency of hand grasping time in one session. There was the improvement of 35.0% of listening music, 33.3% play music, 13.3% singing music, 11.7% minute motion, 11.7% language, and 20.0% personal relation and sociality. The longest duration of hand grasping time was improved from 2 to 12 s in case 2 and from 7 to 80 s in case 3. Grasp frequency which showed the volition rapidly increased from 3 to 41 times, though the elongation for the duration of grasping was little for case 2. rett syndrome is the disease in which the psychomotor performance regresses with the age, but the aspect that surely developed in the session could be evaluated. rett syndrome has the ability understanding the music, and music therapy is suitable for them.
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5/37. lightning eye movements.

    Physiologic studies were performed on a patient who demonstrated lightning eye movements, palatal myoclonus and myoclonic jerks of the left platysma and sternocleidomastoid muscles. The myoclonus and lightning eye movements were separate phenomena with no defined relationship to each other. Analysis of this ocular dyskinesia identified strictly horizontal saccadic oscillations, 2 to 5 Hz in frequency, with amplitudes varying greatly but often reaching 25 degrees. A brief stationary period between each saccadic oscillation was frequently observed. They were particularly induced by vertical or horizontal ocular pursuit as well as sustained upward or downward ocular deviation. Caloric nystagmus abolished the oscillations but they persisted, irregularly, during optokinetic nystagmus. Thus a faulty visual fixation mechanism is postulated to precipitate lightning eye movements. Constrast studies revealed a mass lesion arising from the right dorsolateral portion of the medulla. These results indicate that lightning eye movements occur with caudal as well as rostral brain-stem lesions. From the clinical findings cerebellar pathway involvement is likely.
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6/37. Bilateral posterior agyria-pachygyria and epilepsy.

    We analyzed the electroclinical findings in two patients with bilateral posterior agyria-pachygyria. Both patients presented with mental retardation, mild motor deficit and epilepsy. The electroclinical findings were characterized by frequent tonic or atonic generalized seizures with occasionally simple or complex partial seizures. Interictal electroencephalography (EEG) showed occipital spikes and diffuse polyspike-wave paroxysms predominantly in the posterior region. Ictal EEG showed diffuse 10-11 Hz activity. Cerebral magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs) showed thickened cortex in the parieto-occipital lobes, bilaterally and symmetrically. The volume of underlying white matter appeared reduced, and the overlying subarachnoid spaces were enlarged. The occipital horns were dilated. These findings were compatible with agyria-pachygyria of the posterior portions of the brain.In conclusion, in patients with mental retardation, mild motor deficit and epilepsy characterized by tonic or atonic generalized seizures, interictal EEG with diffuse polyspike-wave paroxysms predominantly in posterior region, posterior focal epileptilorm abnormalities and ictal diffuse 10-11 Hz activity, bilateral parieto-occipital agyria-pachygyria should be considered as a possible etiology. Magnetic resonance image is the best neuroradiological study to identify this disorder of cortical development.
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7/37. Preprogramming motor dysfunction in paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis.

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC) is characterized by abnormal involuntary movements precipitated by sudden movement. As a result, a possible impairment of cerebral organization of voluntary motor activity is hypothesized in PKC. We examined a 14-year-old boy affected by a sporadic form of PKC, adopting a multimodal psychophysiological approach, including P300, contingent negative variation (CNV) and a specific paradigm for the study of movement related potentials (MRPs). Recordings were made before and after phenobarbital therapy. No changes were observed in the non-motor parameters (P300 and early wave of the CNV), whereas the premotor CNV component and the electrophysiological components, reflecting the preprogramming activity of a voluntary motor act, showed selective modifications induced by the anticonvulsant therapy. Our PKC patient presents a disorder of temporal organization of a voluntary motor response to a stimulus. Both a clinical improvement and normalization of motor-related electrophysiological anomalies were observed during phenobarbital (PB) therapy.
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8/37. Bobble-head doll syndrome: some atypical features with a new lesion and review of the literature.

    Bobble-head doll syndrome is a rare and unique movement disorder encountered in children. It is characterized by continuous or episodic involuntary forward and backward and side to side movement of the head at the frequency of 2-3 Hz. neuroimaging in most of the cases reveals third ventricular tumors, suprasellar arachnoid cysts, aqueductal stenosis and other lesions in the region of the third ventricle along with communicating hydrocephalus. In most of the circumstances, the problem starts in the first decade of life and diversion of cerebrospinal fluid by shunt operation is very often accompanied by dramatic improvement. We report one case where bobbing of the head started at around 12 years of age. Additionally, there was evidence of partial left abducens nerve palsy, tremor in the outstretched hands, difficulty in finger-nose test and tandem walking, hyperreflexia and extensor plantar response. He was unconscious on two occasions and there was evidence of gross hydrocephalus along with a thin membranous web, running transversely across the lower part of the aqueduct of Sylvius without any cerebrospinal fluid flow void. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt abolished the abnormal movements. We propose that the aqueductal web was the offending agent for the pathogenesis of bobble-head doll syndrome in our case and this lesion has not been identified in the cases reported so far. Relevant literature in this regard has also been reviewed.
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9/37. coma associated with intense bursts of abnormal movements and long-lasting cognitive disturbances: an acute encephalopathy of obscure origin.

    We report six previously healthy children who several days after a prodromal illness had an acute encephalopathy that ran a biphasic course. It appears to constitute a recognizable syndrome with a good prognosis that can be differentiated from other encephalopathies of obscure origin as previously defined by Lyon et al. The active phase was dominated by coma or confusion and by abnormal movements, including disordered gesticulation and attacks of orofacial dyskinesia or limb dystonia associated with permanent rigidity and culminating in opisthotonic posturing. Repeated seizures were observed in only two patients. Permanent slow waves were recorded on the electroencephalogram in all patients, even during bursts of abnormal movements. cerebrospinal fluid and results of serologic studies were normal throughout the course of the disease, and attempts at viral isolation and antiviral antibody detection yielded negative results. Brain imaging either showed no abnormalities or suggested a moderate degree of brain edema. The recovery phase, which extended for several weeks, was characterized by a rapid return of motor function and persistent behavioral and cognitive disturbances. Nonverbal reasoning recovered long before verbal expression returned to normal. Four patients eventually recovered fully, whereas two had mild sequelae.
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10/37. Leaky neural integration observed in square-wave jerks.

    PURPOSE: To clarify the neuronal mechanism for the square-wave jerks (SWJs). methods: A 66-year-old man presented with oscillatory eye movements. He showed horizontal nystagmus in rightward gaze and SWJs during fixation at straight ahead. We recorded his eye movements with search coil methods and quantitatively analyzed them. RESULTS: Visually guided rightward saccades were followed by exponential drifts with average time constants of 0.3-1.0 second, indicating a leaky rightward velocity-to-position integrator. Amplitude of SWJs ranged from 0.5 to 2.5 degrees and average intersaccadic interval was 0.2 seconds. In addition, exponential drifts similar to those observed after visually guided saccades were observed in the SWJs. Rightward fast eye movements of SWJs were followed by exponential drifts lasting for 0.2 seconds with average time constant ( /-SD) of 0.7 /-0.3 seconds. CONCLUSIONS: Position signals after visually guided saccades and SWJs were outputs of the identical velocity-to-position integrator. SWJs are generated by the neural circuits involving a pulse generator and a velocity-to-position integrator.
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