Cases reported "Mucolipidoses"

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1/40. prenatal diagnosis of mucolipidosis II--electron microscopy and biochemical evaluation.

    prenatal diagnosis of mucolipidosis type II (I-cell disease) can be performed quickly and reliably by electron microscopy of chorionic villus tissue. This study reports the results of studies in three prenatal assessments (two families) where the pregnancy was at one in four risk of the disorder. In all three cases, electron microscopy showed marked vacuolation in chorionic villus cells, consistent with the fetus being affected by the disorder. Further studies in cultured chorionic villus cells showed a marked deficiency of a number of lysosomal enzymes. All pregnancies were terminated. follow-up studies in fetal tissue (where available) confirmed the prenatal diagnosis as correct.
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2/40. I-cell disease (Mucolipidosis II).

    I-cell disease (Mucolipidosis II) is one of the lysosomal storage diseases which presents in the neonatal period, and within six months will phenotypically resemble the severe forms of the group of disorders called the "mucopolysaccharidoses" but without mucopolysacchariduria. In Mucolipidosis II, fibrocytes exhibit "abnormal lysosomes". Activities of several lysosomal enzymes are low in fibroblast cultures but high in mucolipidosis II serum. We present a patient with I-cell disease diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological and biochemical features. The mother of this child was pregnant and the fetus was also found to be affected.
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3/40. Mucolipidosis III type C: first-trimester biochemical and molecular prenatal diagnosis.

    OBJECTIVES: Mucolipidosis IIIC (MLIIIC) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease resulting from defective mannose 6-phosphate-dependent lysosomal enzyme trafficking; mutations of the gamma subunit of N-acetylglucosamine-1 phosphotransferase (GINAcPT) were recently found to cause its pathogenesis. We report here for the first time prenatal diagnosis (PND) for MLIIIC by means of chorionic villous sampling (CVS). methods AND RESULTS: A fetus in a large Bedouin-Moslem family was found to be homozygous for the founder haplotype and the mutational SSCP pattern of MLIIIC. The diagnosis was confirmed by markedly reduced lysosomal enzyme activities in cultured chorionic villi. The molecular identification of the disease-causing mutation in this large Bedouin-Moslem kindred permitted, for the first time, identification of carriers and couples at risk. CONCLUSIONS: The feasibility of early PND for a progressive disabling disease is important for its prevention. Nevertheless, the feasibility of PND raises a serious dilemma since affected individuals might have a variable phenotype and the disease is progressive and non-lethal. In addition, religious and social constraints are important factors to be taken into consideration in the genetic counseling of couples at risk.
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4/40. Biochemical characteristics of a Korean patient with mucolipidosis III (pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy).

    We performed a biochemical study on the patient with mucolipidosis III (ML-III, pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy) in korea. Confluent fibroblasts from the patient and from normal controls were cultured for 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hr, respectively. Lysosomal enzyme activities in culture media after different incubation times and in plasma, leuko-cytes, and fibroblasts were determined. Most of the leukocyte lysosomal enzymes were within normal limits or slightly lowered; however, plasma lysosomal enzyme activities such as those of hexosaminidase and arylsulfatase A were markedly increased. Numerous phase-dense inclusions were present in the cytoplasm of cultured fibroblasts. Lysosomal enzyme activities of fibroblasts were markedly decreased except for beta-glucosidase. The rates of increase of the lysosomal enzyme activities with incubation time were greater in the culture medium of the patient than in normal control, whereas no difference in the beta-glucosidase activity of the culture media of the patient and the control was found. This study describes the first case of ML-III in korea, with its typical biochemical characteristics, i.e., a problem with targeting and transporting of lysosomal enzymes which results in a marked increase in plasma lysosomal enzyme activities and a high ratio of extracellular to intracellular lysosomal enzyme activities in cultured fibroblasts.
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5/40. Mucolipidosis type IV. Presentation of a mild variant.

    The authors report a 16-year-old girl with mucolipidosis type IV. She was referred because of deteriorating vision over the past three years. Corneal clouding with the appearance of cornea verticillata and retinal dystrophy were the main ophthalmological findings. Except for clumsiness no psychomotor retardation was present. Ultrastructural analysis of a conjunctival biopsy and cultured fibroblasts suggested a diagnosis of mucolipidosis type IV which was confirmed by biochemical studies. This patient represents the mildest described presentation of mucolipidosis type IV.
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6/40. Mucolipidosis type III. Multiple elevated serum and urine enzyme activities.

    The clinical characteristics of a 16-year-old white girl with mucolipidosis type III included early growth retardation, severe dysostosis multiplex, restricted joint motion, tight indurated skin, swollen eyelids, late-onset hepatosplenomegaly, umbilical hernia, corneal opacities, and only slightly impaired mental and neurological development. Cultured fibroblasts contained numerous coarse perinuclear retractile inclusions. Biochemical findings indicated the following: (1) normal levels of urinary acid mucopolysaccharides, (2) deficient activities of multiple lysosomal hydrolases in cultured fibroblasts, (3) elevated activity levels of seven serum lysosomal hydrolases, and (4) elevated activity levels of four lysosomal hydrolases in urine.
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7/40. A mucolipidosis III patient presenting characteristic sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of claw hand deformity.

    Mucolipidosis III (ML-III), or pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy, is an autosomal recessive Hurler-like disorder without mucopolysacchariduria. The diagnosis is challenging for rheumatologists since the musculoskeletal presentation is similar to some rheumatic diseases. We report a case of ML-III in a 16-year-old Taiwanese boy. The characteristic findings of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of claw hand deformity are described. A 16-year-old boy was referred to our rheumatologic clinic because of progressive claw hand deformity, multiple joint stiffness and tightness of the skin over the fingers at the age of 6 years. Sonography and MRI examination disclosed tendon sheath thickening over extensor tendons of both wrists and fingers without features of active inflammation over tendons or joints nor thickening of skin. Urinary glycosaminoglycans were normal. The diagnosis of ML-III was confirmed by the presence of elevated activities of beta-glucuronidase (2141.99 nmol/mg protein/hour), arylsulfatase A (1237.7 nmol/mg protein/hour) and alpha-fucosidase (52.95 nmol/mg protein/hour) in his plasma and decreased activity of these lysosomal enzymes in cultured skin fibroblasts. Sonography and MRI screening for claw hand deformity may offer important clues enabling early diagnosis of ML-III.
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8/40. A novel mutation in UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase gamma subunit (GNPTAG) in two siblings with mucolipidosis type III alters a used glycosylation site.

    The N-acetylglucosaminyl-1-phosphotransferase (termed phosphotransferase) catalyzes the initial step in the formation of mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) residues required for the efficient transport of soluble lysosomal enzymes. The phosphotransferase is a multisubunit enzyme composed of three subunits (alpha2beta2gamma2) that are products of two genes. The gene encoding the gamma-subunit (GNPTAG) appears to be defective in patients with mucolipidosis type III (ML III). We have analyzed the GNPTAG gene in two siblings with ML III showing elevated activities of several lysosomal enzymes in cultured fibroblasts serum and diminished activities in cultured fibroblasts. immunoprecipitation of metabolically labeled cathepsin d (CtsD) from fibroblasts revealed that the sorting/transport of this lysosomal protease was affected. Addition of ammonium chloride inhibiting pH-dependent processes, such as the CtsD-M6P receptor interaction, indicated that 15 to 20% of the newly synthesized CtsD is transported in ML III fibroblasts in an M6P-dependent manner. By direct sequencing a novel homozygous mutation, c.347_349delACA (p.Asn116del), was identified affecting a potential N-linked glycosylation site. Western blot analysis of extracts from control fibroblasts detect a 97 kDa glycosylated dimer whereas ML III cells contain a GNPTAG dimer of reduced molecular mass. These data suggest that the loss of the used glycosylation site in the gamma subunit may affect the intracellular localization of GNPTAG and the overall efficiency of M6P formation.
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9/40. Missense mutations in N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase alpha/beta subunit gene in a patient with mucolipidosis III and a mild clinical phenotype.

    Mucolipidosis type III (ML III, pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy), an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of lysosomal enzyme targeting is due to a defective N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphotransferase (phosphotransferase) activity and leads to the impaired formation of mannose 6-phosphate markers in soluble lysosomal enzymes followed by their increased excretion into the serum. Mutations in the phosphotransferase gamma subunit gene (GNPTAG) have been reported to be responsible for ML III. Here we report on a 14-year-old adolescent with a mild clinical phenotype of ML III. He presented with progressive joint stiffness and swelling. Urinary oligosaccharide and mucopolysaccharide excretion was normal. Lysosomal enzyme activities were significantly elevated in the serum and decreased in cultured fibroblasts. Impaired trafficking of the lysosomal protease cathepsin d (CtsD) was confirmed by metabolic labeling of the patient's fibroblasts. Neither mutations in the GNPTAG gene nor alterations in the GNPTAG mRNA level were detected whereas the steady state concentration of the 97 kDa GNPTAG dimer was reduced. Most importantly, the patient is homozygous for a pathogenic nucleotide substitution and a polymorphism in the phosphotransferase alpha/beta subunit gene (GNPTA). The data indicate that defects in genes other than GNPTAG can be linked to ML III contributing to the variability of the phenotype.
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10/40. Mucolipidosis IV. Clinical, ultrastructural, histochemical, and chemical studies of a case, including a brain biopsy.

    A 7-year-old Ashkenazi Jewish boy with normal early development started to regress at 8 months of age and made no further developmental progress. Corneal clouding was noted at age 10 months. Corneal and conjunctival biopsy at 14 months, cerebral biopsy at 24 months, and fibroblast cultures at 32 months showed lysosomal inclusions, suggesting the storage of lipid-like and mucopolysaccharide-like material. In the brain, dense fluorescent inclusions resembled those in ceroid-lipofuscinosis. Total ganglioside content of white matter was raised, but the pattern was normal. The level of nonlipid hexosamine in the brain was normal. The cornea and conjunctiva contained electronlucent vacuoles resembling those in the mucopolysaccharidoses. cornea, brain, and lymphocytes contained concentric membranous lamellar structures reminiscent of those in the gangliosidoses. The clinical picture and ultrastructural findings support the impression that this case belongs to a new variant of the mucolipidoses, mucolipidosis IV.
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