Cases reported "Mucopolysaccharidosis II"

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1/23. bone marrow transplantation in a Hunter patient with P266H mutation.

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome) is a lysosomal disease caused by the deficiency of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS, EC 3.1.6.13). Affected patients show a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes, from severe to mild. Mutational analysis on this disease resulted in the identification of more than 200 alterations. bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is considered, at present, an appropriate therapy for MPS II subjects without severe neuropsychological impairment, however molecular analysis in BMT treated patients has been poorly studied. We describe here a patient subjected to BMT in 1995 whose IDS gene alteration, mutation P266H, was identified thereafter. The 4-year follow-up included clinical, biochemical and molecular parameters. dna analysis showed, after BMT, coexisting host mutant and donor normal alleles, ensuring the effectiveness of the therapy and providing a fast and accurate tool to monitor the colonization of donor cells after treatment.
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2/23. enzyme replacement therapy by fibroblast transplantation: long-term biochemical study in three cases of Hunter's syndrome.

    We have assessed the effectiveness of transplanted histocompatible fibroblasts as a long-lived source of lysosomal enzymes for replacement therapy in three patients with Hunter's syndrome, over periods ranging from 2.5 to 3.75 yr. The level of Hunter corrective factor excreted by all three patients increased after transplantation, as did the activity of alpha-L-idurono-2-sulfate sulfatase in serum, when measured directly with a radioactive disulfated disaccharide substrate. Sulfatase activity was also raised in leukocyte homogenates from the two patients that we were able to assess. These increases in enzyme activity were accompanied by corresponding increases in catabolism of heparan and dermatan sulfates, as shown by (a) a decrease in sulfate:uronic ratios of urinary oligosaccharides, (b) an increase in iduronic acid monosaccharide, and (c) a normalization of Bio-Gel P-2 gel filtration profiles. Both the increase in enzyme activity and increased catabolism were maintained during the period of study and were not affected by either a gradual decrease or total withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy.
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ranking = 167.89084196234
keywords = replacement therapy, enzyme, replacement
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3/23. Donor bone marrow from a sibling with inborn error of metabolism for treatment of acute leukaemia - clinical and biochemical consequences in the non-affected recipient.

    bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is increasingly used in an attempt to correct inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). However, little is known about effects of BMT from patients with IEM donating for non-affected recipients. We present data from a 8.5-year-old girl who underwent BMT in second remission for relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) at the age of 7 years from her HLA-identical brother who was severely affected by Hunter syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, iduronate-2-sulphatase (IDS) deficiency). After BMT not only leukocyte but also plasma activity of IDS was absent. Mixing experiments and immunoadsorption suggest antibody-mediated enzyme inhibition. However, her urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion has not increased post BMT and clinical signs of mucopolysaccharidosis are absent 20 months after BMT. We conclude that patients with white cell enzyme deficiencies and other IEMs do not have to be excluded from bone marrow donation. Antibody production by the graft may occur and be reflected by a marked reduction in plasma enzyme levels but not tissue activity. Similar antibody responses resulting in enzyme inactivation might also affect other enzyme replacement strategies for individuals with IEM.
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ranking = 3052.8863407313
keywords = enzyme replacement, enzyme, replacement
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4/23. Unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation in infancy for mucopolysaccharidosis type IIB (Hunter syndrome) complicated by autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    This report describes unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation for a 10-month-old infant boy with mucopolysaccharidosis IIB (Hunter syndrome), an X-linked metabolic storage disorder due to deficiency of iduronate sulfatase. Two years after transplant approximately 55% normal plasma enzyme activity has been restored and abnormal urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans has nearly completely resolved. The boy has exhibited normal growth and development after transplant. Nine months after transplant he developed severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia and required 14 months of corticosteroid treatment to prevent clinically significant anemia. bone marrow transplantation for Hunter syndrome and post-transplant hemolytic anemia are reviewed. bone marrow transplantation (2000).
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5/23. Hematopoietic cell transplantation for mucopolysaccharidosis IIB (Hunter syndrome).

    Hunter syndrome is an X-linked metabolic storage disorder arising from deficiency of iduronate sulfatase enzyme activity. Despite the successful use of hematopoietic cell transplantation for a variety of lysosomal and peroxisomal storage diseases, limited benefit occurs following transplantation in either the severe or mild forms of Hunter syndrome. A brief ethical commentary is provided on the case of a boy with mucopolysaccharidosis IIB (ie the mild form) who received an unrelated umbilical cord blood transplant to improve his future quality of life. bone marrow transplantation (2000).
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6/23. Lumbar kyphosis in Hunter's disease (MPS ii).

    Although radiological involvement of the lower dorsal and upper lumbar vertebrae is common in the severe form of Hunter's disease (MPS II), there are reports in the literature that clinical kyphosis does not occur. We report a boy with marked clinical kyphosis in whom the diagnosis of MPS II was proved by demonstrating a severe deficiency of serum and leucocyte iduronate-sulphate sulphatase and an accelerated incorporation of radiosulphate into his cultured fibroblast glycosaminoglycans, which could not be corrected by the product of other typed reference MPS II cells. The existence of several other genetic diseases, sometimes complicated by kyphosis, was excluded by assay of fibroblast lysosomal enzymes.
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7/23. Expression studies of two novel in CIS-mutations identified in an intermediate case of Hunter syndrome.

    Hunter syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II) is a rare X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). To date, more than 200 different mutations have been reported in the IDS gene, located on Xq27.3-q28. Here, we report two new mutations (M488I and G489A) identified in hemizygosity in an Italian Hunter patient. Their "in vitro" expression by COS 7 cells was carried out in order to evaluate their functional consequence on enzyme activity as well as their possible cumulative effect on the malfunctioning of the protein. The results obtained enabled us to confirm the G489A mutation as causative. The M488I mutation, however, could not be unequivocally considered as causing disease because of its residual activity. Although a cumulative effect of the two mutations can be excluded "in vitro," we are cautious about drawing a conclusion with regard to the possible role that the two mutations could have played "in vivo" in modulating the phenotype of the patient. Finally, the knowledge of the molecular defect of the patient has enabled us to identify the carriers, providing reliable genetic counselling to the females of the family.
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keywords = enzyme
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8/23. Deletion of the Hunter gene and both DXS466 and DXS304 in a patient with mucopolysaccharidosis type II.

    Hunter syndrome is an X-linked mucopolysaccharidosis due to deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). A cDNA clone containing the entire coding region of the human IDS gene, mapped in Xq28, has been used as molecular probe to study a patient with Hunter syndrome. A submicroscopic deletion has been detected that spans the IDS gene as well as DXS466 and DXS304, 2 loci mapped probably not more than 900 kb from the IDS locus. A detailed clinical description of the patient is provided and his phenotype is compared to that of other patients with IDS deletion described recently. By following the segregation of a restriction fragment length polymorphism at the IDS locus in the patient's family, our data suggest that the deletion occurred in the germ cells of the patient's grandfather.
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9/23. Severe type Hunter's syndrome. Polysomnographic and neuropathological study.

    The clinico-pathological and polysomnographical findings of an adult male patient with severe type of Hunter's syndrome are presented. He died of respiratory failure aged 19, which was much older than the average in this disease. Mucopolysaccharidosis was suspected at the age of one year, and diagnosed by leucocyte enzyme assay at 4 years of age. Mental and physical activity gradually deteriorated until his death. He often showed central type sleep apnea during the sleep stage 2, in addition to common obstructive apnea in Hunter's syndrome. The autopsy showed marked fibrous thickening of the endocardium and valves, enlargement of the liver and spleen, dilatation of the lateral ventricles and diffuse atrophy of the brain. Histologically, diffuse cytoplasmic vacuolations were found in fibroblast-like cells in the thickened endocardium and vascular walls, in kupffer cells, and in many neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Most neuronal inclusions were considered to be a ganglioside, and in other cells to be a mucopolysaccharide, by their ultrastructure. Massive accumulation of ganglioside in the neurons in the respiratory center might be reflected on central type sleep apnea.
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10/23. The effect of haematopoietic stem cell transplant on papules with 'pebbly' appearance in Hunter's syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Hunter's syndrome is associated with several cutaneous findings. For instance, papules with 'pebbly' appearance are a specific marker for the disease. However, it remains uncertain whether they disappear after haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the papules with 'pebbly' appearance before and after HSCT in infants with Hunter's syndrome, and to clarify the effect of HSCT on papules. patients: We observed five Japanese boys with Hunter's syndrome who had received HSCT at 4-11 years of age. RESULTS: The post-HSCT physical examinations revealed that papules disappeared completely within 35 days after the transplant with progressive reduction of cutaneous tightness in all the patients. Histochemical findings showed that papules contained a large amount of hyaluronic acid in the extracellular materials of the dermis and sulphated acid mucopolysaccharides in dermal fibroblasts before HSCT. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that papules with a 'pebbly' appearance fade away through the digestion of a large amount of hyaluronic acid in cutaneous tissues by normal tissue histiocytes or enzymes of donor origin at an early stage after HSCT.
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